Penobscot, the principal river of Maine, formed by the junction near the centre of the state, in the E. part of Penobscot co., of two chief branches. The western and larger rises near the Canada border, flows N. E. to Ches-uncook lake, from the S. end of which it issues, and after a S. E. course of about 20 m. enters a group of ponds or lakes, including Pem-adumcook, Millinoket, and Twin lakes. The eastern branch, also called Seboois river, proceeds from several small lakes in the N. part of Penobscot co., and has a nearly S. direction. The main stream pursues a course a little W. of S., receiving among its most important affluents the Piscataquis on the west, and the Mattawamkeag and Passadumkeag on the east, and falls into Penobscot bay. Its total length, from the source of the W. branch, is about -275 m., and from the junction about 135 m. The principal towns on its banks are Castine, Bucksport, and Orrington on the east, and Belfast, Prospect, Frankfort, Hampden, Bangor, and Oldtown on the west. To Bangor, 55 m. from its mouth, it is navigable for large vessels. Along its course it has numerous falls, affording valuable water power.
At Bangor there is a tide of about 17 ft. resulting from the peculiar wedge-like shape of the lower part of the river.
Penobscot, a central county of Maine, intersected by the Penobscot river; area, 2,760 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 75,150. It has a diversified surface and a generally fertile soil. Formerly it comprised a very large territory, which has been gradually cut up to form other counties, and its outlines are very eccentric, it being composed of three parallelograms irregularly disposed. The county is intersected by the Maine Central railroad and the Dexter branch, the European and North American, and the Bangor and Piscataquis. The chief productions in 1870 were 39,475 bushels of wheat, 73,944 of Indian corn, 361,355 of oats, 90,765 of barley, 31,348 of buckwheat, 1,201,558 of potatoes, 1,363,921 lbs. of butter, 92,581 of cheese, 188,273 of wool, and 116,343 tons of hay. There were 9,263 horses, 14,815 milch cows, 4,378 working oxen, 15,482 other cattle, 46,429 sheep, and 5,050 swine. The number of manufacturing establishments in 1870 was 850, employing a capital of $4,658,390, and producing goods to the value of $10,556,944. The most important were 14 tanneries, 5 planing mills, 122 saw mills, 4 machine shops, 2 paper mills, 23 ship yards, 3 woollen mills, 7 iron f ounderies, 8 flour mills, 41 cooper shops, 10 manufactories of boots and shoes, 22 of brick, and 38 of clothing.
American Pennyroyal (Hedo-oma pulegioides).