Pensacola Bay, an arm of the gulf of Mexico, in the western part of Florida, extending inland about 30 or 35 m. in a N. E. direction. At a little more than half this distance from the sea it separates itself into two divisions, Escambia bay on the west, and on the east the bay of Santa Maria de Galvez with its subsidiaries, East and Black Water bays. The former receives the waters of the Escambia river; the latter, those of the Black Water and Yellow Water. The entrance of the bay, between Santa Rosa island on the east and the mainland on the west, is little more than 1 m. wide, but within it expands into a capacious harbor, from 4 to 8 m. in width, and entirely landlocked. There is a depth of about 22 ft. of water on the bar. The entrance of Pensacola bay is defended by Fort Pickens on the east, situated on the extreme point of the long, narrow" island of Santa Rosa, and Fort McRee on the west, situated on the mainland. About 1 1/2 m. to the north, and immediately in front of the entrance (the W. shore making an abrupt turn E.), stands Fort San Carlos de Barrancas. Near this fort are the lighthouse, extensive barracks, and the naval hospital. About a mile above the hospital is the navy yard, situated on Tartar point, where the shore again bends north.
The villages of Warrington and Woolsey lie immediately adjacent to the wall of the navy yard. Seven miles above is the town of Pensacola. At the mouth of Black Water river is the village of Bagdad, where there are saw mills, sash manufactories, etc. Milton, a village of about 1,500 inhabitants, is 2 m. above. There is a large lumber trade on the shores of Pensacola bay and its tributaries.