Pepin, a W. county of Wisconsin, separated S. W. from Minnesota by the Mississippi river, and partly bounded E. and partly intersected by Chippewa river; area, 250 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 4,659. The surface is level or gently undulating, and the soil fertile. The chief productions in 1870 were 97,990 bushels of wheat, 108,232 of Indian corn, 79,378 of oats, 27,187 of potatoes, 125,010 lbs. of butter, and 6,522 tons of hay. There were 958 horses, 1,298 milch cows, 2,778 other cattle, 2,746 sheep, and 2,818 swine. Capital, Durand.
Of Heristal, duke of the Franks, born about the middle of the 7th century, died in 714. He was the grandson of Pepin of Landen and the founder of the Carlovingian family. Inheriting part of the influence of his ancestors, who held the highest rank among the leudes or lords of Austrasia, Pepin, in concert with his brother Martin, the mayor of the palace, led the rebellion against King Dagobert II., who was murdered in 679. The two chiefs then received the title of " dukes of the Franks," and the kingly title in Austrasia was abolished. They attempted to subdue Neus-tria, which was then ruled by the mayor Ebroin, but were defeated near Laon in 680, when Martin was killed and Pepin remained the only chief of the Austrasians. Occasional hostilities took place during the following years, without any marked success; but Pepin in 687, having routed the Germans, invaded Neustria at the head of a formidable army. The contest ended in the battle of Testry, when Roman France, as northern Gaul was called, succumbed to Teutonic France; and thenceforth the duke was the acknowledged ruler of the whole Frankish empire.
He permitted Merovingian princes to continue on the throne; but Thierry III., Dagobert II, Clovis III., Childebert III., and Dagobert III. were mere puppets, known in history as the rois faineants, whom he kept under guard in some villa, bringing them forth but once a year in the national meeting of May, while he wielded unlimited authority. From 687 to 712 he was engaged in wars against the tribes on the banks of the Rhine, and especially the Frisians and the Alemanni. After repeated defeats, both were subdued. The latter days of Pepin were troubled by the rivalry between his legitimate wife Plectruda and his mistress Alpaida, the mother of Charles Martel. His own son Grimoald was murdered; and he bequeathed to his infant grandson under the' regency of his widow a power which was soon seized upon by his natural son, whom he had imprisoned.
The Short (Le Bref), the first king of the Carlovingian dynasty, grandson of the preceding, and son of Charles Martel, born about 715, died in September, 768. On the death of his father in 741 he received as his share of the Frankish empire Neustria, Burgundy, and Provence, while his elder brother Oar-loman had Austrasia and the countries on the right bank of the Rhine. To strengthen his power, he placed on the throne a Merovingian prince, Childeric III., and contented himself with the title of mayor of the palace. In concert with Carloman, he forced the Bavarians, the Alemanni, and the Aquitanians into submission; but Carloman having retired to a convent in 747, Pepin made himself the ruler of the whole Frankish dominions. Availing himself of a favorable decision of Pope Zachary and the consent of the lords, he confined Childeric in the monastery of Sithieu, near St. Omer, and was solemnly crowned and anointed by St. Boniface at Soissons in 752. In the same year he received the submission of Septi-mania, which for several years had been held by the Saracens of Spain. In 753 he forced the Saxons to recognize his supremacy by paying a tribute of 300 horses and taking an oath to respect the Christian missionaries travelling among them.
Pope Stephen III. now visited France to solicit assistance against the persecutions of Astolphus, king of the Lombards. Pepin received him with great honor, was crowned again by him, and started for Italy at the head of his army. He besieged Astolphus in Pavia, who sued for peace and assented to the terms dictated by his conqueror; but Pepin had scarcely left Italy when Astolphus broke the treaty and threatened the city of Rome. Pepin hastened to the rescue (755), conquered the exarchate of Ravenna, and gave it with the Pentapolis to the pope, thus founding the temporal sovereignty of the holy see. In 760 he invaded Aquitania, which under the heroic Waifar had asserted its independence. A dreadful war of eight years was waged, and the king of the Franks could only secure his conquest of that province by the assassination of his rival (768). Pepin died a few days after his return from his last expedition thither, leaving his kingdom to his two sons, Carloman and Carl or Karl, the latter of whom was afterward known as Charlemagne. Notwithstanding his shortness of stature, from which his surname was derived, Pepin was noted for extraordinary physical strength.