Perch, a name properly restricted to the percidce, a very extensive family of acanthop-terous fishes, characterized by a covering of ctenoid scales, the freedom and small size of the infra-orbital bones, large mouth, many of the fin rays unjointed and inflexible spines, seven branchiostegal rays, and the ventrals with five articulated rays and placed under or in advance of the pectorals. There are teeth on the vomer and generally on the palate, and the fins are always at least seven and sometimes eight; the cheeks are not cuirassed, and there are no barbels on the lips; the stomach is csecal, and its pyloric opening on the side; pancreatic caeca few and small, and the intestinal canal but little folded. Only the typical genera can here be alluded to, and in the first place the genus perca (Cuv.), of which the common fresh-water perch (P. flavescens) of America and the P. fluviatilis of Europe are familiar examples. The old genus perca of Artedi and Linnaeus has been subdivided into 36 genera according to the number and shape of the dorsals, the characters of the teeth, the serrations of the gill covers and shoulders, size of the scales, and other characters.

In the restricted genus perca of Cuvier there are two dorsals (the second flexible), all the teeth vil-liform without canines, the opercular bones serrated, the operculum spiniferous, and the tongue smooth; 14 species are described, all inhabitants of fresh water. The yellow perch (P. flavescens, Cuv.) is greenish yellow above, and golden yellow on the sides, with seven transverse dark bands, widest above, and white below; centre of operculum deep green, iris golden, dorsals and caudal yellowish brown, pectorals yellow, and ventrals and anal scarlet. It attains a length of 12 to 15 in. and a weight of 2 1/2 lbs., though most specimens are below 10 in.; it is very generally distributed in the lakes, ponds, and streams of the northern and middle states and of the British provinces; it is easily taken by the hook or net, and is an excellent fish for the table. The P.fluviatilis (Linn.) is very common over Europe and most of the northern parts of Asia; the body above is greenish brown, passing into golden-yellowish white below, and on the sides are from five to seven blackish bands; the dorsals and pectorals brownish and the other fins vermilion; it is a bold biter, and its flesh is excellent; it is voracious, omnivorous, and tenacious of life out of water; it deposits an immense number of eggs united by a viscid substance into lengthened strings.

In some allied species the single dorsal is deeply notched, and the villiform teeth are interspersed with canines. - There are some sea perches belonging to the genus serranus (Ouv.), with a single dorsal, canines, preoper-culum rounded at the angle and smooth, two or more spines on operculum, and the jaws not scaly; there are 26 species, many of them handsome fishes, abundant in the warmer seas, and some of them known to the ancients under the name of perca. The allied genus anthias (Bloch), smaller, with brilliant colors and scaly jaws, was famous in ancient times, and, according to Aristotle, was called sacred by the sponge fishers, because no voracious fishes came to the places it frequented to annoy the divers. In other genera the dorsal is single and canines are absent, as in centropris-tis (Cuv.), which includes the fish often called black perch; this, with other fishes of the genera labrax (Ouv.), grystes (Cuv.), and others called white, ruddy, and sea perches, have been described under Bass. The bream (pomotis vulgaris, Cuv.) is often called pond perch; the white perch of the Ohio is the corvina oscula (Lesueur). - The salt-water perch, Conner, or chogset, so common around the rocky shores of New England and the British provinces, is a cyclolabroid fish of the genus ctenolabrus (Cuv. and Val.). In this fish (C. cceruleus, De Kay) the body is elongated and scaly, the preoperculum finely denticulated, lips thick and fleshy, a row of conical teeth in each jaw and a band of villiform ones behind these, the scales cycloid, and the anal fin with three spinous rays.

It varies exceedingly in size and colors, being from 6 to 16 in. long; it is generally bluish, but presents various tints of brown, rusty, coppery, reddish, or green, often with black dots, and irregular bluish lines on the head; the front teeth are larger than the others, and the upper jaw is very projectile; there is a single dorsal, with 18 strong spinous rays. It is an excellent pan fish, and is taken in great numbers from June to October.

Salt Water Perch (Ctenolabrus caeruleus').

Salt-Water Perch (Ctenolabrus caeruleus').