Periodical Literature, as the term is usually applied, comprises those serial publications the principal object of which is not the conveyance of news, but the circulation of interesting essays, tales, poems, and literary, scientific, or artistic information. Periodical literature embraces two classes of publications, the first devoted to literature or criticism, and the second to the sciences, the arts, or special branches of knowledge. Many present characteristics which would place them in both of these divisions. - The multiplication of books rendered it impossible for the scholar to purchase or peruse more than a small portion of the works issued from the press; hence the necessity for critical journals. This want was first met in France. In January, 1665, Denis de Sallo, assuming the name of the sieur d'He-douville, issued at Paris the first number of the Journal des Savants. He was succeeded in the following year by the abbe Jean Gallois, under whose supervision the journal was published at irregular intervals till 1672. Its publication was resumed by the abbe J. P. (le la Roque in 1675, who was followed by L. Cousin in 1687. In 1701 it was placed under the protection of the chancellor of France, and a commission of learned men appointed to conduct it.
It was interrupted by the revolution at the close of 1792, and an effort to revive it in 1797 was only so far successful that a volume of 394 pages was published; it was permanently reestablished in 1816, and still continues. J. Doneau de Vise founded in 1672 the second literary periodical in France, the Mer-cure galant, which gave reviews of poetry and the drama. Its title was changed in 1717 to the Mercure de France, and it was conducted with ability by Marmontel and others till 1813. It has since been revived for brief periods as the Minerve francaise (1818-20) and the Mercure du XIXe siecle. In 1701 a society of Jesuits at Trevoux began the Memoires pour servir d Vhistoire des sciences et des 'beaux-arts, more commonly known as the Memoires de Trevoux. It was characterized by the excellence of its critical judgments, and by the zeal with which it combated anti-Jesuitical opinions; it lasted till 1767. A virtual successor of the Memoires is the existing periodical of the society of Jesuits, the Etudes de theologie, philosophic et his-toire, at first published annually (1857 and later), then semi-annually, afterward quarterly, and since 1863 fortnightly.
It is conducted by Gagarin, David, and De Guilhermy. The other noteworthy literary journals of France in the last century were the Ann'ee litteraire (1754-'91) of Freron; the Decade (afterward Revue) philosophique (1794-1807), by Ginguene; and the Magasin encyclopedique (1795), by Millin, the second series of which was styled Annales encyclopediques, and the third Revue encyclopedique. It was suspended in 1832, when it was succeeded by the Revue franeaise et etran-gere, by Jullien, of which only a few volumes were issued; and a second, attempt by Didot to reestablish it in 1846 as the Nouvelle Revue en-cyclopedique was equally unsuccessful. In the present century the Revue francaise (1828-30 and 1837-9), by Guizot, the Revue de Paris (1829-46), the Revue independante, and many more have appeared and been discontinued. But the Revue des Deux Mondes, commenced in 1829, among whose most celebrated contributors have been Sainte-Beuve, Remusat, Thiers, De Broglie, Edmond About, George Sand, Ca-ro, Renan, and a great number of other leaders in French literature, has been marked by an ability which has made it permanent and placed it at the head of French critical serials.
To the admission of poetry and tales into the reviews, and to the publication by almost every newspaper of a literary feuilleton, must be ascribed the almost total want in France of serials exactly corresponding to the English magazines. - England seems, with the exception of Italy, to have been the first country to imitate the example of France. But the " Weekly Memorials for the Ingenious," the earliest issue of which appeared in January, 1682 (1681-2), lasted but a year, and some of its articles were translations from the Journal des Savants. The "Universal Historical Biblio-theque" began in January, 1686, and expired in March. The "History of Learning" (1691, and again 1694), and the "Memoirs for the Ingenious" (1694), were also of brief duration; but the " History of the "Works of the Learned" (1699-1711) was more successful, though the works reviewed are chiefly continental. A learned French Protestant refugee, Michel de la Roche, edited in London the " Memoirs of Literature" (1T09-'14), and afterward in Holland the BibliotMque angloise (1717 - '27) and the Memoires litteraires de la Grande-Bretagne (1720-'24); but his "Memoirs of Literature" was recommenced in England in 1725. In 1728 the title was changed to the "Present State of the Republick of Letters," and Andrew Reid assumed the editorship.
It underwent another transformation in 1737, becoming the " History of the "Works of the Learned," which was continued till 1743. Its place was then to some extent supplied by the "Literary Journal" (Dublin, 1744-'9), the earliest publication of the kind in Ireland. Since the middle of the 18th century it has been generally customary in English literature to apply the word review to those serial publications whose province is criticism, and magazine to those whose pages are filled with miscellaneous and entertaining reading. The earliest of the former class was the " Monthly Review " (1749-1844), established by Griffiths, who conducted it for more than half a century. It was followed within the next 50 years by the " Critical Review" (1756-1817), founded by A. Hamilton and supported by the contributions of Smollett, J. Robertson, and other writers; the "London Review" (1775-'80), succeeded by the " New Review " (1782-'96), a journal incorporated in 1797 with the "Analytical Review " (1788-'99), which was driven from the field by the "Anti-Jacobin Review and Magazine" (1798-1821); and the "British Critic" (1793-1843), edited at first by Nares and Beloe, who advocated the principles of the English high church party.
At the beginning of the 19th century the "Edinburgh Review " (founded in 1802 by Francis Jeffrey, Sydney Smith, Henry Brougham, Francis Horner, and others) at once elevated the standard of this class of serial literature. It met with immediate and great success, and from the beginning numbered among its contributors many of the leaders in English literature. Macaulay, Carlyle, and later Sir "William Hamilton, have been among the chief of these. It was a vigorous defender of whig policy, and soon had a formidable rival in the tory " Quarterly Review " (1809) of London, successively edited by Gif-ford, J. T. Coleridge, and Lockhart, and numbering among its contributors Scott, Southey, and Croker. The ""Westminster Review" (1824), styled for a period the "London and "Westminster Review," was started by Bentham and other utilitarians, and, as the organ of the radicals in politics, has maintained a high position under the direction of Bowring, Mill, and Hickson. The "Eclectic Review" (1805), in which papers by Adam Clarke, Robert Hall, and John Foster appeared, was evangelical in religion and liberal in politics; the "Christian Observer " (1802), at first edited by Z. Macau-lay, C. "Wilks, and others, is the organ of the moderate church party; and the "Dublin Review" (1836) was brought into existence by O'Connell and his friends as the representative of Catholic literature.
Many able reviews, of considerable influence during their continuance, have ceased to exist. Such are the "Foreign Quarterly Review " (1827-'46), which occupied itself, under the editorship of Gillies and Fraser, with foreign literature; the "British Review" (1811-'25); the "Retrospective Review " (1820-'26, and again 1853), which gave reviews of old books; and the " Irish Review " (1857). Their places have been filled by the " British Quarterly Review" (1845), successor to the "British and Foreign Review" (1835-'45), the "New Quarterly Review " (1852), the " Scottish Review " (1853), the "London Review" (1853), the "National Review " (1855), and a few others. The reviews are generally printed quarterly, but the " Saturday Review " (1855), which combines political articles with critical notices of new publications, is a successful weeklv; while the " Examiner" (1808), "Athenaeum" (1828), "Spectator " (1828), and " Illustrated Review " (1873) are also hebdomadal journals of criticism, giving a portion of their space to literary intelligence.
The " Fortnightly Review " (which retains its original name, though now published monthly) and the "Academy " (fortnightly) have the same general arrangement; the former of these publications being especially influential, and numbering among its past and present contributors, besides the editor John Morley, J. S. Mill, Mazzini, William Morris, Swinburne, Francis Galton, and many others. - The "Tatler" (1709-'10) and "Spectator" (I7ll-'12 and '14) traced out a new path in literature, in which many imitators, not only in England, but all over the continent, hastened to follow. Of the multitude of similar English publications, the "Rambler" (1750-'52) of Johnson was the most famous. The earliest of the English magazines was the " Gentleman's Magazine," commenced in London by Cave in 1731, and continued after his death by Henry and Nichols, the editors assuming the pseudonymous appellation of Sylvanus Urban. Johnson and other eminent writers of the 18th century contributed to it; besides sketches and essays, it published for a time the proceedings of parliament; and it contained obituaries and much other historical matter, which has been made accessible by the publication of five index volumes. It is still continued.
For many years its pages were almost wholly devoted to history and archaeology; but these features have almost disappeared, and it has become lighter and more general than ever before, changing its character completely. Cave had a host of followers. The " London Magazine " (1732-'84), the "Royal Magazine" (1759-71), the "Oxford Magazine" (1768-'82), the "European Magazine" (1782-1826), the "Scots Magazine "(1789-1817), the earliest in Scotland, and the "Monthly Magazine" (1796-1829), supported by the efforts of Priestley, Godwin, and others, were among the chief ones which originated in the 18th century. "Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine" (1817) is of a higher order than any of its predecessors. Founded by Blackwood, the Edinburgh publisher, who was long its editor, and supported by the constant contributions of John Wilson (" Christopher North "), J. G. Lockhart, James Hogg,-Dr. Maginn, Robert Syme, and others associated with them, it attained an early fame, which has since been sustained by the writings of some of the greatest English authors.
The " New Monthly Magazine " (1814), edited in turn by Campbell, Hood, Bulwer-Lytton, and Ainsworth, "Fraser's Magazine" (1830), and the " Dublin University Magazine" (1832), have been leaders among those which followed "Blackwood's." A new era in this sort of literature has been introduced by the shilling magazines, of which " Macmillan's Magazine " (1859), the " Cornhill Magazine " (1859), first edited by Thackeray, and " Temple Bar " (1860), by Sala, are the most prominent, the last two having attained a very large circulation. The "St, James's Magazine," "Belgravia," "St. Paul's," and " London Society " are recent additions to this class. The weekly magazines began in 1832 with the "Penny Magazine" (1832-'45) of Knight, and "Chambers's Journal." The former was not only very successful, owing to its illustrations and its cheapness, but it led to a crowd of imitations both in Europe and America. This popular class of journals, including the "Saturday Magazine" and "Family Herald," has of late been greatly improved, and other examples of the kind are "Howitt's Journal" (1847-'9), "Household Words" (1850-'59), conducted by Dickens, " All the Year Round" (1859), by the same editor and continued by his son, " Once a Week" (1859), the "Leisure Hour" (1861), and many others.
A peculiar department in periodical literature has been marked out and filled since 1849 by "Notes and Queries," which forms a medium of intercommunication for men of letters, and a repository for brief notes on curious topics in the various branches of literature. Many of the English magazines have within a few years adopted pictorial illustration; and a great many illustrated publications occupy a kind of middle ground between the magazines proper and the newspapers. Such are the " Graphic," a London illustrated weekly, the " Illustrated London News," and many others. - In Germany a translation of the Journal des Savants appeared at an early day, but in 1682 an original work, the Acta Uruditorum, was founded by two private learned societies at Leipsic. It was less brilliant, although by no means less erudite, than its French prototype; but being written in the Latin language, sternly orthodox in its Lutheran opinions, and governed by no systematic code of criticism or philosophy, it failed to exert the influence or attain the success of the Paris periodical. Supported by the contributions of men like Leibnitz, Seckendorf, and Cellarius, it continued for a century.
The first literary serials in the German language were written in the form of dialogues; they were the Monatsgesprache (1688-9) of Tho-masius, and the Monatliche Unterredungen (1689-98) of Tenzel, who subsequently edited the Gurieuse Bibliothek (1704-'7). The Novel-len aus der gelehrten und curieusen Welt (1692) had but a brief existence, and the Deutsche Acta Eruditorum (1712-56), an imitation of the Latin work, was the first really successful undertaking of the kind. Under the ^itle of Oelehrte Zeitung, almost every large town had in the latter half of the 18th century its literary journal, among the principal being those of Frankfort, Halle, Kiel, Gotha, Erfurt, and Erlangen. But more important were the Neue Zeitung von gelehrten Sachen (1715-97), edited by Beck and others, whose closing volumes are entitled Literarische Denkwurdigkeiten; the Gottinger gelehrte Anzeigen, begun in 1739 as the. Zeitung von gelehrten Sachen, whose editors, among others, have been Haller, Heyne, and Eichhorn, and which is still published; the Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek (1766-1806), founded by Nicolai; the Briefe, die neueste Lit-eratur oetreffend (1759-,65), in which Lessing, Mendelssohn, and Abbt took part; the so-called Bremer Beitrage, through whose pages Gie-seke, Zacharia, Gellert, Gartner, and other critics exercised a powerful influence upon the German literary world; the Allgemeine Lite-raturzeitung, established by Bertuch at Jena in 1785, but removed by Schutz to Halle in 1804, and continued till 1848; and the Je-naische allgemeine Literaturzeitung, founded by Eichstadt at Jena upon the removal of the last named, and also suspended in 1848. In the earlier half of this century were published the Leipziger Literaturzeitung (1800-34), the Wiener Jahrbucher der Literatur (1818-'48), Hermes (1819-'31), distinguished for its erudition, and the Jahrbucher fur wissenschaftliche Kritih (1827-47). The leading existing critical authorities are the Heidelberger Jahrbucher der Liter atur (1808); the Repertorium der deutschen und ausldndischen Literatur of Gersdorf, a continuation of the Repertorium der gesammten Literatur (1834-'43); the Deutsche Vierteljahrsschrift (1838), modelled upon the English quarterlies; the Gelehrte Anzei-gen of the Bavarian academy; the above mentioned Gottingen periodical of the same name; Das Ausland (1828); the Literarisches Central-Matt fur Deutschland; Die Gegenwart (1872); the new Literaturzeitung of Jena-(1874); the Deutsche Rundschau (1874), and one or two others.
Of a lighter and more popular tone are the Blatter fur literarische Unterhaltung (1833), previously edited by Kotzebue as the Literarisches Wochenblatt; the Deutsches Museum (1851), by Prutz and Frenzel; the Grenz-boten (1841), by Schmidt and Freytag; Wester-mannh Monatshefte (1855); the Gartenlaube (perhaps the best known), Der Salon, and many more of the magazine kind. The Jllustrirtes Familien-Journal of Leipsic is of the " Penny Magazine " school, and enjoys a very large circulation. Ueber Land und Meer, and other weekly illustrated periodicals, are of much the same character as the London " Graphic." - In 1668, three years after the appearance of Sallo's journal, the Giornale de' Letterati was commenced at Rome by Nazzari, and published till 1679. Under the same title literary periodicals were afterward issued at Parma (1686-90) by Roberti and Bacchini, at Venice (1710-'33) by the brothers Zeno, at Florence (1742), and finally at Pisa in 1771, which last has been continued, with the exception of a brief period (1797-1801), down to our own time.
The Biblioteca volante (1676-1718, and 1733-47), commenced by Cinelli and continued by Sancassani, was less solid; but the Jtfovelle letterarie, published for several years subsequent to 1740, and edited in part by Lami, was marked by much erudition. Distinguished at a later period have been the Biblioteca ita-liana (1816-40) of Milan, conducted at first by Acerbi; the Antologia (1821-'32) of Florence, under the direction of a society of scholars; the Giornale arcadico (1819) of Rome, begun by Odescalchi; the Giornale enciclopedico (1806) of Naples, which was followed in that city by the Progresso delle Scienze (1833-48), and since by the Museo di Scienze e Letteratura; and several minor ones, like the Poligrafo (1811), and Nagazzino pittoresco, and the popular Album (1824) of Rome. The chief critical serials at present are the Rivista contempora-nea (1852) of Turin, resembling in style and appearance the French Revue des Deux Mondes, and the Politecnico (1839) of Milan, which was suppressed in 1844 and revived in 1859. In-eluding the proceedings of learned societies, and several illustrated weeklies, such as the Illus-trazione, Gazetta illustrata di Roma, etc, more than 30 periodicals are now (1875) published in Rome, the number having rapidly increased since the events of 1870. - Spain was represented in periodical literature during the 18th century by the Diario de los Literatos (1737-'47); the Pensador (1762), one of the " Spectator" school, and chiefly written by Clavijo; the Seminario erudito (1778-91), by Balladeres, noted for its publication of rare and important literary manuscripts; the Memorial literario (1784-1807); and the Variedades, which acquired a considerable reputation under the management of Quintana. The Cronica cienthfica y literaria (1824), by Mora, subsequently became a political sheet.
The Censor (1820), by Lista, Hermosilla, and Mifiano, was for some years the best periodical which Spain had seen; this was finally superseded by the Revista espa-ftola (1831), which successively changed its title to Revista europea and Revista de Madrid. Later are the Cartas espafiolas (1831), the Antologia espafiola (1848), the Revista hispano-americana (1848), edited by Mora for a brief period only, the Revista de Espana, the Seminario pintoresco, and the Revista de Arribos Mun-dos. - The Journal da Coimbra in the earlier part of this century was the first, and for a long time the only, literary organ of Portugal. In 1837 the Panorama was founded, which still circulates largely both in Spain and Brazil; and in 1842 the very excellent Revista universal lisbonense was established by Castilho. Other publications of the literary class are the Journal da Sociedade dos Amigos das Letteras and the Bibliophilo. - In Holland two celebrated men entered upon the career of literary journalism in the latter part of the 17th century.
The Mercure savant (1684) of Desbordes at Amsterdam was a feeble production; but Bayle in the same year began his Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres, which was continued with great success till 1718. He speedily found a rival in Le Clerc, who undertook in 1686 the first of the three famous series of reviews to which he is indebted for so much of his reputation. These were the Bibliotheque universelle et historique (1686-93), the Bibliotheque choisie (1703-'13), and the Bibliotheque ancienne et moderne (1714-'27). The first periodical in the vernacular was the Boekzal van Europa (1692-1708, and 1715-'48), by Rabusand Sewel, which was excelled by the Republijk der Geleerden (1710-'48). J. van Effen, imitating the English essayist, produced his Hollandsche Spectator (1731-5) with marked success; but a new era in criticism was introduced in 1761 by the Va-derlandsche Letteroefeningen, which still continues. The Allgemeene Kunst- en Letterbode (1788) maintained for many years a high rank, but now exerts little influence.
The Recensent (1803), superseded within the past 20 years by the Nieuwe Recensent, has proved a powerful rival to the Letteroefeningen. Other existing periodicals are the Nederlandsche Museum (1835), the Tijdstrom (1859), and the Navorscher on the plan of the London " Notes and Queries." - The Esprit des Joumaux (1772-1818) was a Belgian literary miscellany of considerable value; but it was not until the separation from Holland that the periodicals of Belgium began to be of much interest. The Messager des Sciences, edited for many years by St. Ge-nois, is frequently quoted, while the chief issues in the Flemish tongue have been the Neder-deutsche Letteroefeningen (1834), by Blom-maert; the Belgisch Museum (1836-46), by the well known scholar Willems; the Kunst- en Let-terblad (1840-'43); the Vlaemsche Rederyker (1844), and one or two more popular miscellanies. - In Switzerland the Bibliotheque bri-tannique (1796-1815), and its more original successor the Bibliotheque universelle (1816), which is published in two parallel series, one scientific and the other literary, are widely circulated both at home and abroad.
The Revue Suisse has been conducted with much success at Neufchatel since 1837. - The earliest noteworthy literary journal of Denmark was the Lmrde Tidende (1749-66). Then came the Minerva (1785) of Rahbek, continued with a slight change of title till 1819; the Danske Tilskuer (1791-1808); the Skandmavisk Museum (1798-1803), revived as the Litteratur-Selskabs Skrifter (1805-32); and the Lmrde Efterretninger (1799-1810), by Miiller, ably continued by the same editor under the name of Litteratur-Tidende (1811-'36). Molbech published the Athene (1813 - '17) and other periodicals, one of which, the Historisk Tidskrift (1840), survived him, and was afterward edited by Westergaard. The more modern journals are the Tidskrift for Litteratur og Kritik (1839-42), now transformed into the quarterly For Litteratur og Kritik (1843); Maanedskrift for Litteratur (1829-'38); the Nordisk Litteratur-Tidende (1846); Nord og Syd (1848-'9), by Goldschmidt, revived in 1856, and afterward changed to the Hjemme og Ude; and the Dansk Maanedskrift, by Steenstrup, commenced in 1858. In 1854 the Nordisk Universitets Tidskrift, a well managed quarterly review, of which the numbers are alternately published in Swedish and Danish by the four Scandinavian universities of Copenhagen, Christiania, Upsal, and Lund, originated in the Danish capital.
The Svenska Argus (1732-'4), written by Dalin, a warm admirer of Addison, was the earliest notable addition made by Sweden to learned periodical literature. In 1742 Celsius founded the Tidningar om den lardas Arbeten, which was afterward edited by Salvius and Gjorwell as the Larda Tidningar; but the first comprehensive critical journal was the Svenska Mercurius (1755-65) by Gjorwell. The Phosphoros (1810-13), by Atterbom and Palm-blad, carried on by the latter as the Svensk Literatur-Tidning (1814-'24), and its adversary the Iduna (1811-24), edited by a society styled Gothiska Forbundet, both wielded a powerful influence in the literary circles of Sweden, and originated two different schools of poetry and criticism. Among other periodicals may be mentioned Polyfem (1810-12); Svea (1818-'32), noticeable for its elevated tone and clever reviews of foreign books; Journal for Literaturen (1809-'13), subsequently known as the Allmanna Journalen (1813-'23); Skandia (1833-'7); Liter atur-For enin-gens Tidning (1833-6); and the Literaturblad (1838-'40). The best of a later date are the Tidskrift for Literatur by Malmstrom (1850), the Nordisk Tidskrift, by Solman (1852), and Fbrr och Nu, published at Stockholm, and now the leading monthly.
A Swedish monthly, the Augustana, is published at Chicago, U. S. Nor (1840-46), conducted by members of the Christiania university, and the Norsk Tidskrift for Videnskab og Litteratur, established in 1847, and since edited by Lange, are the only especially prominent literary organs which have yet arisen in Norway. The periodicals published in the Icelandic language are not numerous. They comprise the Sagna-blod (1817-26), edited by Finn Magnusson, and now issued under the name of Skirnir (1827); Fjolnir (1835-'45); Ny Fjelagsrit (1841), a review edited chiefly by Jon Sigurdsson; and Nordurfari (1848-9), by Gisli Brynjulfsson. In Finland the sole literary journal deserving of notice is the Suomi, which has been issued in the Swedish language since 1840. - The existing periodicals of Russia are more noted for their size than their number, a single issue sometimes containing 300 pages. Periodical literature in that country began with the Ye-zhemiesiatchniya sotchineniya ("Monthly Essays"), edited by Miiller from 1755 to 1764. Soon afterward commenced Sumarakoff's " Industrious Bee" (1759), and Kheraskoff's "Leisure Hours" (1762). The Viestnik Evropi ("European Intelligencer"), founded in 1802 by the historian Karamsin, and subsequently (1808) edited by Zhukovsky, was superior to these.
To this succeeded the Ruskoi Viestnik, conducted from 1808 to 1820 by S. N. Glinka, then by Gretch and Polevoi, which, after being suspended for some years, was revived at Moscow in 1856 by Katkoff. One of the ablest publications was the Sin Otetchestva (" Son of the Fatherland "), founded in 1812, with which was united in 1825 the Severnoi Arkhiv (1822), or "Northern Archives," at which time Bulga-rin and Gretch became joint editors; the latter resigned it in 1839 into the hands of Massal-sky, and a few years afterward it ceased to appear. The "telegraph" of Moscow (1825-'35), by Polevoi, began a new era in Russian criticism; it was suppressed by the government, and its successor, Nadeshdin's "Telescope," speedily met with a similar fate. They were followed in the old capital of Russia by the Moskmtanin (1840), founded by Pogodin, the organ of the Panslavic theories. The Biblio-teka cilia Tchteniya (" Library for Reading ") owed its origin (1834) to Gretch, who was followed in the chair of editorship by Senkovsky; under the direction of Smirdin it is still one of the foremost periodicals of the country, although a portion of its contents consists of translations, chiefly from English works.
The Sovremennik ("Contemporary"), founded by Pushkin in 1836, was afterward conducted by Pletneif; while the Otetchestvenniya Zapiski (" National Journal") was edited at first (1840) by Bielinsky, and then by Krayevsky, distinguished under both by the zeal with which it opposed Panslavism. Outside of the country itself the Archiv fur wissenschaftliche Kunde von Bussland, edited at Berlin by Erman since 1841, gives a valuable resume of the labors of the Russian men of science and letters. - An important Polish periodical was edited before the revolution of 1830 by Lach Szyrma under the title of Pamigtnik warszawski ("Warsaw Memoirs"). The Ateneum was more recently issued in the same city by Kraszewski, but expired at the end of three or four years; the Biblioteka warszawska has been more successful; and several Polish literary serials have appeared at Wilna, Cracow, Posen, and Lem-berg. - The principal literary periodical of Bohemia,'the ftasopis Ceskeho Muzeum ("Journal of the Bohemian Museum"), was begun in 1827 by the historian Palacky, edited from 1838 to 1842 by Schafarik, and since that time by Wocel. It has done much toward building up a vernacular literature. - The earliest serial issue of the Hungarian press was the Magyar muzeum (1788), started by Kazinczy, Sza-bo, and Bacsanyi; but it soon expired, and Kazinczy for a while conducted the Orpheus. The Tudomdnyos gyujtemeny, or " Literary Magazine," held from 1817 to 1841, under the editorship of Vorosmarty and others, the first place among Hungarian periodicals, but it had for a time a rival in the Elet es literatura ("Life and Literature"), originated in 1826 by Kolcsey and P. Szemere. The Figyelmezo, or "Observer" (1837-'43), was an influential literary serial under the charge of Bajza, who in conjunction with Schedel (Toldy) also conducted the " Athenaeum," an imitation of the London periodical of the same name, which enjoyed for a considerable time a deserved success.
The Erdelyi muzeum (" Transylvanian Museum ") of Dobrentei had only a brief existence, and was followed by Toidy's Uj Magyar muzeum, or "New Hungarian Museum," and Csengery's Budapesti Szemle ("Bu-da-Pesth Review"). - 'O ("The Learned Mercury"), the earliest periodical of modern Greece, was maintained by the contributions of Asopios and other prominent men.
To it has succeeded the or " European Contributor," established by Rangabe and others at Athens in 1840. - In India the issues of the periodical press are of course formed upon English models. The earliest one of a literary character was the "Calcutta Monthly Eegister" (1790), which lasted for several months. Of its successors the best known are the "Oriental Magazine and Indian Hurkaru," which began at Madras in 1819; the "Madras Miscellany;" the "Calcutta Review " (1844), a valuable existing quarterly; and the "Bombay Quarterly Review," which dates from 1855. At Singapore the "Journal of the Indian Archipelago " has been published since 1847, while the " Chinese Repository," begun by Morrison at Canton in 1832, is filled with valuable articles relating chiefly to the literature and history of the extreme East. - The periodical literature of the Spanish American and other South American states is unimportant, except so far as regards publications in special branches of science and industry. - Reversing the rule which had prevailed in the old world, the United States, as was natural in a new country where scholars and institutions of learning were as yet few, had its journals of entertainment long before its journals of erudition appeared.
The date of the first literary periodical is 1741. In that year Franklin issued the "General Magazine and Historical Chronicle " at Philadelphia, on the plan of the " Gentleman's Magazine;" but it existed only half a year, while of the " American Magazine," begun in the same year and city by Webbe, two numbers only were published. The other issues of the kind prior to the revolution were mostly short-lived. They were the " American Magazine and Historical Chronicle " (Boston, October, 1743, to December, 1746); the " Boston Weekly Museum " (4 nos., 1743); the "Independent Reflector" (New York, 1752-4), which numbered among its contributors Gov. Livingston and the Rev. A. Burr; the " New England Magazine " (Boston, 1758), which ceased after the appearance of a few parts; the " American Magazine" Philadelphia, October, 1757, to October, 1758), published by Bradford; the "North American Magazine " (Woodbridge, N. J., 1758-'66), by S. Nevil; the "American Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1769), by Nicols; the "Royal American Magazine " (Boston, 1774-'5); and the "Pennsylvania Magazine " (Philadelphia, 1775), commenced with articles by Thomas Paine and others, but interrupted by the war.
After the conclusion of peace and before the end of the century came the " Columbian Magazine " (Philadelphia, 1786-'9), edited at first by Carey, who abandoned it to undertake the "American Museum " (1787-'97), a compilation from the newspapers and other journals of the time, of much historical value; the "Massachusetts Magazine " (Boston, 1789-'96); the " New York Magazine" (1790-'97); the "Farmer's Museum " (Walpole, N. H., 1793), edited from 1796 until near the close of the century by Dennie; the "United States Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1796), by Brackenridge; the "American Universal Magazine " (Philadelphia, 1797); and the "Monthly Magazine and American Review" (New York, 1799-1800), founded by the novelist 0. B. Brown, but carried on afterward as the " American Review and Literary Journal" (1801-2). It would hardly be possible to give a complete list of the numerous literary miscellanies which have been undertaken since 1800 in the principal cities of the Union. A large majority of them never succeeded in obtaining anything like success or permanence.
Among them were the "Port Folio" (Philadelphia, 1801-25), by Dennie, the first American periodical which reached an age of over 10 years; the " Literary Magazine " (Philadelphia, 1803-'8), by O. B. Brown; the "Monthly Anthology " (Boston, 1803-11), containing articles by Tudor, Buckminster, Thacher, Kirk-land, J. 8. J. Gardiner, J. Q. Adams, and G. Ticknor; the " Literary Miscellany " (Cambridge, 1804-'5); the "General Repository" (1812-'13), at the same place; the "Mirror of Taste" (Philadelphia, 1810-'ll), by Carpenter, who paid much attention to dramatic matters; the "Monthly Register" (Charleston, 1805), the first southern periodical; " Literary Miscellany" (New York, 1811), by Baldwin; the "Analectic Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1813-'20), designed especially for officers in the navy, and edited in 1813-'14 by Irving; the "New York Weekly Museum " (1814-'17); the "Portico " (Baltimore, 1815-19); Buckingham's "New England Magazine" (Boston, 1831-5); the " American Monthly Magazine" (New York, 1817-'18); the "Literary and Scientific Repository " (New York, 1820-'21); "Atkinson's Casket" (Philadelphia, 1821-'39), displaced at last by " Graham's Magazine," which from 1840 to 1850 was the best of its class in America; the " Atlantic Magazine " (New York, 1824-'5), by Sands, continued till 1827 as the " New York Review;" the " Southern Literary Gazette" (1825); the "New York Mirror" (1823), begun by Morris and Woodworth, the latter being succeeded by Fay, who gave place to "Willis, from which time till 1842 Morris and Willis successfully conducted it; the "Illinois Monthly Magazine" (Vandalia, 1830-'32), the earliest literary publication in the west, edited by J. Hall, who superseded it by the " Western Monthly Magazine" (Cincinnati, 1833-'6); the "American Monthly Magazine" (New York, 1833-8), established by Herbert and Patterson, and subsequently edited by Park Benjamin; the "Gentleman's Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1837-'40), by W. E. Burton; the "Dial" (Boston, 1840-44), edited during its first two years by Margaret Fuller, and afterward by R. W. Emerson, the organ of the school of New England transcendentalists; "Arcturus" (New York, 1840-'42), by C. Mathews and E. A. Duyck-inck; the " Magnolia" (Charleston, 1842-'3); the " International Magazine" (New York, 1850-'52), under the editorial charge of R. W. Griswold. Much more prominent and successful than any of these were the "Knickerbocker " (founded by C. F. Hoffman at New York in 1832\ and continued chiefly under the editorship of Louis Gaylord Clark till 1860), and "Putnam's Monthly" (New York, 1853-'7, and again 1867-9). These two were the best of the lighter American magazines of the past.
The present periodical literature of the United States includes several monthlies of a high class. The "Atlantic Monthly," founded in Boston in 1857, successively edited by J. R. Lowell, J. T. Fields, and W. D. Howells, and sustained by the frequent contributions of Longfellow, Holmes, Whittier, and other leading writers of America, is prominent among these. " Harper's New Monthly Magazine" (New York, 1850) is the most widely circulated of the American monthlies; and others of a similar class more recently established in New York are "Scribner's Monthly," edited by J. G. Holland, and the " Galaxy." " Lip-pincott's Magazine" (Philadelphia) and "Old and New" (Boston) are monthly publications of like character. The "Overland Monthly" is published in San Francisco, and the " Lakeside Monthly" at Chicago. - All the early magazines drew largely from English sources, but in 1811-12 appeared at Philadelphia the " Select Views of Literature," solely devoted to reprints from the foreign periodical press; it has been followed by the " Saturday Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1821), the "Museum of Foreign Literature" (Philadelphia, 1822-'39), the " Select Journal of Foreign Periodical Literature," edited by A. Norton and C. Fol-som (Boston, 1833-4), and by two existing publications, " Littell's Living Age" (Boston, 1844) and the " Eclectic Magazine " (New York, 1844). A multitude of magazines filled with light reading, and designed more particularly for circulation among the women of America, have been published, the earliest of which were the "Ladies' Magazine" (Philadelphia, 1799) and the "Lady's Weekly Miscellany" (New York, 1807-8); later ones were the "Lowell Offering" (1841), chiefly written by female operatives in the New England factories; the "Ladies' Companion" (New York, 1820-'44); the "Columbian Magazine " (New York, 1844 '8); the " Union Magazine " (New York, 1847), by Mrs. Kirkland, afterward published at Philadelphia as "Sartain's Magazine;" "Arthur's Magazine " (Philadelphia); "Miss Leslie's Magazine" (Philadelphia); and the still issued "Go-dey's Lady's Book" and "Peterson's Magazine " of Philadelphia. Magazines for children appear to have originated with the " Young Misses' Magazine" (Brooklyn, 1806), and have been published since in great numbers.
Rather historical than literary have been the "American Register" (Philadelphia, 1806-'10), and periodicals of the same name by Walsh (Philadelphia, 1817) and by Stryker (Philadelphia and New York, 1848-51), as well as the "American Quarterly Register" (Andover, 1829-'43), by Edwards. The " New England Historical and Genealogical Register" (Boston, 1852), by Drake, and since by John "Ward Dean and others, the "Historical Magazine" (New York, 1857), by Folsom, and the " New York Genealogical Record" (1869), are also filled with American historical and biographical matter. - The review literature of the United States begins with the "American Review of History and Politics" (Philadelphia, 1811-'13), by Walsh; but the ablest and most permanent publication of this sort has been the " North American Review" (Boston, 1815), which has been successively edited by Tudor, E. T. Chan-ning and R. H. Dana, Edward Everett, Sparks, A. H. Everett, Palfrey, Bowen, Peabody, Lowell, Charles Eliot Norton, and Henry Adams, and has constantly maintained a high character both for style and critical ability.
The "American Quarterly Review" (Philadelphia, 1827 -37); the "Southern Review" (Charleston, 1828-'32), by Elliott and Legare; the " Western Review" (Cincinnati, 1828-'30), by Flint; the "New York Review" (1837-'42), established by Hawks, and subsequently edited by J. G. Cogswell and C. S. Henry; and the "Southern Quarterly Review " (Charleston, 1842-52), were well conducted, but were short-lived. The "Democratic Review" (New York, 1838-'52), afterward the " United States Review " (1853-5), and subsequently revived by Florence and Lawrence as the " National Democratic Quarterly Review;" the " American Whig Review" (New York, 1845-'52), by Colton and Whelpley; the " Massachusetts Quarterly Review" (Boston, 1847-'50), by T. Parker; and the " New York Quarterly Review " (1852-'3), were also of short duration. The "New Englander" began at New Haven in 1843, and the "National Quarterly Review" at New York in 1860. The "International Review" was begun at New York in 1874, and is published six times a year.
Minor critical journals have been the "Literary Review " (New York, 1822-'4), followed by Bryant's " New York Review and Athenaeum Magazine " (1825), and its successor, the " United States Review and Literary Gazette " (1826-7); and several periodicals in imitation of the London literary weeklies have been attempted, such as the "New York Literary Gazette" (1834-'5 and 1839), the " Literary World" (New York, 1847-'53), edited by Hoffman and the Duyckincks, " Norton's Literary Gazette " (New York, 1854-'5), the " Criterion " (New York, 1855-'6), the "Round Table" (1865-'8), and the "Citizen" (1864-'73). " The Literary World," founded in Boston, 1870, by S. R. Crocker, and "Appleton's Journal" (New York, 1869) are successful literary weeklies; the former a critical periodical, the latter general. " The Nation" (New York, 1865), edited by E. L. God-kin, though more properly a weekly newspaper and political review, holds a high place in literary criticism, and has proved successful.
The periodical religious literature of the country dates from the closing years of the last century. Omitting the notice of weekly journals, only those periodicals can here be mentioned which are of recognized importance in connection with the national theological literature. Of these, the following is nearly a complete list: the "Theological Magazine," bimonthly (New York, 1796-'8); "the New York Missionary Magazine," bimonthly (1800-'3); the " Connecticut Evangelical Magazine," monthly (New Haven, 1800-'14); "Monthly Anthology" (Boston, 1803-'ll), followed in the exposition of Unitarian sentiment by the " General Repository " (1812-'13), the " Christian Disciple" (1813-'19), the " Christian Disciple and Theological Review," new series (1819-'23), and the " Christian Examiner," bimonthly (1823-70), edited at various times by Palfrey, Jenks, Walker, Greenwood, Ware, Ellis, Putnam, Hedge, and Hale; the "Pano-plist," Boston, commencing in 1805 (edited by Jeremiah Evarts), absorbing in 1809 the "Missionary Magazine," and about ten years later taking the name of the " Missionary Herald," which is still issued as the organ of the American board of missions, but succeeded as a theological publication by the " Spirit of the Pilgrims" (1828-'33), conducted by E. Pond; the " Christian Magazine " (1807-'ll), edited by Dr. John M. Mason; the " Christian Herald " (New York, 1816), transformed in its eighth volume, four years later, into the "Sailors' Magazine," still published; the " Christian Spectator" (New Haven), Congregationalist, issued monthly from 1819 to 1828, and quarterly from 1829 to 1838, and succeeded after an interval of five years by the "New Englander" (1843); the "Christian Advocate," monthly (Philadelphia, 1822-'34), Presbyterian; the "Princeton Review," commenced as the "Biblical Repertory" by Hodge in 1825, in 1871 united with the " Presbyterian Quarterly Review," when the titles of the two were combined; the " American Biblical Repository " (New York), issued quarterly from 1831 to 1850, when it was united with the " Bibliotheca Sacra " (Andover, 1844), with which the "Christian Review" (Baptist), commenced at Boston in 1836, and afterward published at New York, has been united, and which also in 1871 absorbed the "Theological Eclectic," established at Cincinnati in 1865; the "American Quarterly Observer " of Edwards (Boston, 1833-4), united with the " Biblical Repository;" the " American Quarterly Register" (Andover, 1829-43); the "Literary and Theological Review " (New York, 1834-'9); the "Universalist Quarterly" (Boston, 1843); the " Universailst Quarterly Review," by G. H. Emerson (1844); the "Methodist Quarterly Review" (1841), commenced as the "Methodist Magazine," 1818; Brownson's "Quarterly Review" (Boston and New York, 1844-'64, revived in 1873), begun as the " Boston Quarterly Review," 1838; " American Quarterly Church Review," Episcopal, commenced at New Haven, 1848, and subsequently transferred to New York; " New Engender "(New Haven, 1843); the "Theological and Literary Journal" (New York, 1849 -'51), preceded by " Views in Theology" published in occasional numbers (1824-'33); "Evangelical Quarterly Review," Lutheran (1850-70); "Religious Magazine and Monthly Review" (Boston, 1848), transformed in 1875 into the "Unitarian Review," which is also published monthly at Boston; the " Presbyterian Quarterly" (Philadelphia, 1853-'62), by Wallace, united with the "American Theological Review," founded by H. B. Smith in 1859, and after the union known as the " American Presbyterian and Theological Review " till 1871, when in conjunction with the " Princeton Review " it took the name of the "Presbyterian Quarterly and Princeton Review," by which it is now known; the " Freewill Baptist Quarterly" (Dover, N". H., 1853 -66); " Mercersburg Review " (1854), the new series dating from 1867; the " Protestant Episcopal Quarterly Review" (1854); the "New Brunswick Review" (New Brunswick, N. J., 1854-'5); "Congregational Quarterly" (Boston, 1859); "Presbyterian Magazine " (Philadelphia, 1851-'60), succeeded after an interval by a similar publication first issued at Cincinnati, and subsequently transferred to Philadelphia; the " Catholic "World," a prominent Roman Catholic monthly (New York, 1865); the " Baptist Quarterly " (Philadelphia, 1867); the "Reformed Church Monthly" (Philadelphia, 1868); the " Southern Review," commenced in 1867 at St. Louis under the auspices of the Methodist church, South, and still continued at Baltimore; and the "Quarterly Review of the Evangelical Lutheran Church " (1871), succeeding to the "Evangelical Quarterly Review." - Journals devoted to the sciences and the arts, or to particular departments of knowledge, began to be published in the latter years of the 17th century, but were not numerous until the beginning of the 19th, since which they have multiplied with wonderful rapidity, until there is now scarcely any subject of interest, or that can be made an object of investigation, which has not its periodical organs.
Every civilized country now has its journals of theology, jurisprudence, medicine, the natural sciences, the mechanical sciences, and agriculture, while in most of them each trade or important industry has its magazines.