I. An Eastern Province Of Brazil

An Eastern Province Of Brazil, bounded 1ST. by Ceara and Parahyba, E. by the Atlantic, S. by Alagoas, Bahia (from which it is separated by the Rio Sao Francisco), and Minas Geraes, and W. by Piauhy, the dividing line with which is the Serra dos Dous Irmaos; area, 57,583 sq.m.; pop. in 1871, 1,250,000. The coast of this province, which comprises the larger part of the northern side of the Sao Francisco basin, is 135 m. long, and for the most part low, with high red cliffs fronting the sea. There are few ports capable of admitting large vessels. That of Recife or Pernambuco, the capital, is defended by a reef (whence its name) remarkable for its length and straightness; a part of it has been built up with masonry, to render it still more efficient as a breakwater. The face of the country is divided into three zones: the mattas or littoral, very fertile, and densely wooded; the carrasco or bushwood zone, undulating and dry, but yielding good crops of cotton and vegetables; and the sertao or elevated zone, very mountainous, stony, and dry, being only suitable for pasturage. There do not appear to be any summits of over 4,000 ft. above the sea. All the drainage of the middle and westera portions is into the Sao Francisco, some of the streams being quite large.

The chief rivers emptying into the ocean are the Una, Ca-pibaribe, Ipojuca, Serenhaem, and Pirapama; none of them are navigable, being almost entirely dry during the dry season, and greatly swollen in the rainy season. The climate on the coast is damp, but the excessive heat is here somewhat modified by sea breezes, while in the interior no tempering influence exists. There are extensive and valuable forests. The region of the mattas produces large quantities of sugar, molasses, and rum, and cotton is also extensively cultivated and of fine quality; but the system of agriculture is very inefficient. Mandioca and cocoanuts are the only other important productions, the latter from large groves planted on the coast. Cattle rearing is largely carried on in the sertdo; and there are in the coast region numerous mills for producing mandioca flour. Public instruction is flourishing. In 1873 there were 466 primary schools and 25 grammar schools, with 17,175 pupils; and there are several higher schools in the capital.

The principal towns are Recife, Monteiro, Goyanna, Tamandare, Rio For-mozo, and Serenhaem.

II. A City

A City, capital of the province. (See Recife).