Peru (Span. Peru), an independent republic of South America, extending from lat. 3° 20' to 22° 20' S., and from about Ion. 67° to 81° 26' W. It is bounded N. by Ecuador, from which it is separated mainly by the Rio Marafion or Upper Amazon; E. by Brazil and Bolivia, the dividing lines with which are respectively the Ja-vary from its confluence with the Amazon, the 10th parallel, the Purtis to lat. 12°, and thence a line bisecting Lake Titicaca and joining the western cordillera of the Andes, which completes the boundary southward; S. by Bolivia, from which it is separated by the Rio Loa; and W. by the Pacific. The boundary with Brazil is now generally regarded as marked by the Rio Javary, but the jurisdiction of the Peruvian colonial government extended eastward to the banks of the Teffe. The area is now roundly computed at 500,000 sq. m. The territorial division comprises 17 departments (subdivided into provinces, and these into districts) and two littoral provinces, which, with their estimated populations and their capitals, were officially stated in 1873 as follows:

DEPARTMENTS.

Population.

Capitals.

Piura....

153,000

Piura.

Amazons....

69,000

Chachapoyas.

Loreto...

65,000

Moyobamba.

Liberted....

219,000

Trujillo.

Cajamarca...................

198,000

Cajamarca.

Ancachs...

295,000

Huaraz.

Lima....

400,000

Lima.

Huanuco...

195,000

Huanuco.

Junin....

188,000

Cerro de Pasco.

Ica.....

180,000

Ica.

Hnancavelica....

142,000

Huancavelica.

Ayacucho....

230,000

Ayacucho.

Apurimac....

165,000

Abancay.

Cuzco.....

300,000

Cuzco.

Puno....

273,000

Puno.

Arequipa....

200,000

Arequipa.

Moquegua....

90,000

Tacna.

Callao ....

littoral provinces

35,000

Callao.

Tarapaca..

70,000

Tarapaca.

Total....................

3,417,000

....

Another official document, published in 1871, gave the population at 3,199,000; but the most carefully prepared statistical works represent it as not exceeding 2,500,000, made up approximately as follows: Indians, 57 per cent.; hybrids (cholos, zambos, &c), 23 per cent.; whites born in the republic, 12 1/2 per cent.; negroes, 3 1/2 per cent.; Chinese, 1 3/4 per cent.; and other foreigners, 2 1/4 per cent. The capital is Lima, with a population in 1868 of 121,362. Other towns of note are Callao, Cuzco (the ancient capital of the empire of the incas), Arequipa, Ica, Mo-quegua, Tacna, Iquique, Ayacucho or Huaman-ga, Cerro de Pasco, Huanuco, Huaraz, Cajamarca, Trujillo, Chiclayo, Lambayeque, Moyobamba, and Piura. - The coast, forming an irregular N. and N. W. line, is notched with numerous inlets, but there are no deep indentations save the large bay of Sechura, fronting the desert of the same name between the 5th and 6th parallels, and the bay of Pisco and Independence bay, between lat. 13° and 15°. The two last are formed by two rocky promontories jutting obliquely N. W. and S. E. into the sea, called Punta Huacas and Carretas head; these, with Points Aguja, Payta, Parina, and Blanco, all in Piura, Salinas in Lima, and Coles in Moquegua, are the most remarkable headlands on the Peruvian seaboard.

The principal ports are Payta, at the head of a beautiful bay in the department of Piura, with the best anchorage on the coast, and considered the oldest port in Peru; Eten and Salaverry, in Libertad; Callao, the port of Lima, the bay of which is formed and shielded by the barren island of San Lorenzo; Pisco, in the department of Ica; Islay, in Arequipa, and formerly the port for Arequipa city, but lately superseded in this respect by Mo-llendo, a few miles S., which is much frequented by ships since the opening of the railway to Arequipa; Arica, in Moquegua, through which is carried on most of the foreign trade of Bolivia by the Pacific; and Pisagua and Iquique, in the province of Tarapaca. The remainder of the 34 ports are unimportant, and with them all Peru has not a single harbor, but open roadsteads, in many of which, as at Mollendo, the water is at times so rough as to prevent communication between ships and shore for several days. Indeed, along the whole coast, the swell rolling in from the Pacific breaks in a heavy surf, which renders landing in most places dangerous, and often impossible even for boats. In exposed positions rafts called balsas are used for landing or embarking goods or passengers.

In some of the more important ports, however, as at Callao, landing has of late been considerably facilitated by the construction of iron moles. Since the introduction of steam navigation almost all the towns on the banks of the Maraflon, Huallaga, and Ucayali are stations for the river steamers; and Puno is among the principal ports of the great Alpine lake Titicaca. The shore, especially in the north, is in general bold with deep water close to land; as much as 70 to 80 fathoms are reported in some parts within a short distance of the cliffs. Islands are far less numerous and usually smaller on the Peruvian than on any other coast washed by the south Pacific. The most important are the Chinchas (see Chinoha Islands), at t:he entrance to the bay of Pisco; the Guanape, Macabi, and Lobos groups, between lat. 6° and 9°; and the Pa-jaros islets off the southern shores of Tarapaca; all of which are remarkable for their extensive guano deposits. The island of San Lorenzo is the largest, and attains here and there an elevation of 1,000 ft. - The country is traversed by the Andes in two separate ranges, the Cordillera Oriental or Andes proper, and the Cordillera Occidental or coast ridge; to which is added a third and still more easterly chain, N. of the parallel of Pasco, about 11°. The coast ridge enters the republic from the south, and, running almost parallel to the shore, at a distance of from 45 to 65 m., unites with the Cordillera Oriental in the nudo or mountain knot of Vilcanota, between lat. 14° and 15°, the northern limit of the great inter-alpine plain containing Lake Titicaca, a comparatively small portion of which belongs to Peru. This knot, near the eastern extremity of which stands the imperial city of Ouzco, comprehends the mountains of Vilcanota (15,525 ft. above the sea), Carabaya, Abancay, Huando, and An-dahuaylas. Almost the minutest inflections of the coast correspond to like inflections in the Cordillera Occidental. The table land of Cuzco, comprising an area of about 15,000 sq. in., on the flattened crest of the Andes, has a mean elevation in the south of 11,500 ft. above the sea, or about 1,000 ft. more than in the north, and is divided by low transverse ridges into numerous valleys.

At the N. extremity the Cordilleras again bifurcate, and run parallel till they unite anew in the knot of Pasco in lat. 11° S., bounding the fertile valley watered by. the Rio Jauja, and about half the length of the Titicaca basin. This division of the western cordillera, here designated as the Sierra de Huarochiri, comprises two summits rising above the line of perpetual snow and visible from Lima, whose inhabitants call them el Toldo de Nieve; and still further N. are the colossal peaks of La Viuda and Sa-saguanca. The knot of Pasco is famous for the silver mines of Lauricocha or Santa Rosa, and the table land which it forms has an estimated elevation of 11,420 ft. according to Humboldt. A little N. of the parallel of Pasco the Andes separate into three chains. The most easterly, a small lateral branch, trending first N. E. for two degrees, and then curving abruptly N. W., divides the valleys of the Ucayali on the east and the Huallaga on the west, but gradually lowers, until in lat. 6° 40' it is crossed by the latter stream, and finally disappears before reaching the southern bank of the Amazon. The second or Andes proper is the dividing line between the basins of the Huallaga and Marafion; and the third or Cordillera Occidental runs between the Maraflon and the coast, comprising between lat. 9° and 7° 30' the Nevados de Pelagatos, de Mo-yapata, and de Huaylillas, the last mountain rising above the line of perpetual snow for several degrees N. This depression is general in all the ranges in the same interval, while S. of the Nevado de Huaylillas each sensible lowering in one chain is compensated by a corresponding elevation in the other.

The coast chain and the Cordillera Oriental do not again unite before the nudo de Loja beyond the Ecuadorian frontier, the mean height of which does not exceed 6,500 ft.; and in the parallel of Jaen, 5° 45', neither of them rises higher than 2,000 ft. The valley here enclosed by them embraces some of the hottest portions of the Andine region. Of the two great Cordilleras, the western is much the broader, wilder, and more rugged, and its peaks are generally less pyramidal, though loftier, than those of the other, which are for the most part needle-shaped; its general elevation is also more uniform. It is the dividing line between the streams flowing to the Pacific and those to the Atlantic, the latter finding their way by tortuous courses through the Cordillera Oriental. Some of its passes are among the highest on. the globe; that from Lima to Tarma and Pasco crosses the ridge at an elevation of 15,760 ft. The snow line is lower in Peru (about 16,000 ft.) than in Bolivia (17,000). The culminating p6int of Peru, the volcano of Misti in Arequipa, is only 20,300 ft. above the sea, or lower than all the volcanic peaks of Bolivia. The principal volcanic hearth of Peru is the department of Arequipa, the other peaks besides Misti being Pichu, Charcani (18,000 ft.), and the Pan de Azucar (17,000 ft.), all towering over the city of Arequipa, and Ornate, Tutupaca, and Ubinas. The most destructive eruptions hitherto chronicled have been those of Misti, one of which in the 16th century buried the city in ashes, and necessitated its removal to its present site, 7 m. further "W. from the crater.

The local names given to special portions of the ranges are those of the departments which they traverse, while the volcanoes and other isolated peaks are designated by special names. The region hitherto described is known in the republic as the sierra or mountain country, a name applied to all parts of the territory over 7,000 ft. above the sea, except the very highest plateaux, which are usually called paramos. The tract called la costa or the coast, between the steep ascent of the Cordillera Occidental and the Pacific, varies in width from 20 to 50 m., and slopes towand the ocean with a very irregular surface and rapid descent, furrowed by deep depressions or gullies, which run from the mountains to the sea. These gullies are generally traversed by rivers, many of which are dry during a great part of the year. The ridges between the rivers are complete deserts, varying in*' breadth from 10 to 90 m. The surface is very uneven, and is covered with hillocks of considerable size, composed of fine, light yellow drift sand, which is often driven about with great velocity by the wind, and ascends in columns to a considerable height.

All traces of a path between the river valleys are thus obliterated, and no stranger can travel from one to another without a guide, who generally directs his course by the stars at night, and by the wind during the day, which almost always blows from the south. - Darwin and others suppose that since its occupation by man the coast has been elevated at least 85 ft., and that the upheaval has not been continuous, but interrupted by periods of subsidence. The country E. of the Cordillera Oriental, and of the small lateral range forming the eastern boundary of the Huallaga basin, slopes gently down into vast plains called the montafia, forming part of the great alluvial valley of the Amazon, and like it covered with dense primeval forests. The portion comprised between the Huallaga and the Ucayali is known as the Pampas del Sacramento, or the land of the missions, thus named from the establishments there founded by the Jesuit missionaries after the Spanish conquest. The hills in this region are low beyond the Ucayali. - The rivers which drain the Peruvian territory are divided between two great basins, that of the Pacific and that of the Amazon. The streams descending from the W. declivity of the Cordillera Occidental are for the most part short and precipitous, and entirely dry for several months of the year, so that they can only be utilized for irrigation.

The largest of these streams, which number about 60, are the Chira and the Piura, in the department of Piura; the Santa in Ancachs; the Rimac, which passes Lima and falls into the sea at Oallao; the Oamana and Tambo in Arequipa,; and the Loa, forming the southern boundary of the republic. The great rivers of the eastern slope of the Andes unite to swell the flood of the Amazon, into which they all (except the Purus) discharge before leaving the republic. The most westerly, the Maranon, said to rise in Lake Lauricocha near the mines of Oerro de Pasco, N. of Lima, holds a generally N. N. W. course thence to lat. 5° 30', collecting the waters of comparatively few and unimportant streams in the narrow valley which it drains. At that point it bends abruptly E. N. E., and maintains that direction to Tabatinga, Ion. 69° 50' where it enters Brazil. (See Amazon.) The Huallaga, whose head waters descend from the same mountains as those of the Maranon, runs parallel with the latter to lat. 7° 30', and thence N N. E., and falls into that river almost at right angles, in Ion. 75° 30'. Next is the Ucayali, formed by the united waters of the Apurimac and TJru-bamba, themselves mighty rivers with large and navigable tributaries, and joining the Ma-. ration at Nauta, about 200 m.

N. E. of the junction of the Huallaga. The main stream of the Apurimac, which some geographers long regarded as the head branch of the Amazon, takes its rise in the S. W. corner of the table land of Ouzco, which it drains by numerous affluents, as it does also the valley of Jauja by a river of that name, a tributary of the Man-taro, which last joins the Apurimac in lat. 12°. The Urubamba, a considerable stream, but much obstructed by cataracts, rising chiefly in the Sierra de Vilcanota, unites about lat. 8° 30' with the Apurimac, to form the Ucayali. The Javary and the Purus, the upper portions of which have been but recently explored, are less important than the Ucayali, but the Puriis is navigable for about 2,000 m. from its embouchure. - The geological character of Peru, except in particular localities, has not been well examined. Red sandstone is met with both on the coast and in the interior, often accompanied by vast deposits of salt. Granite and porphyry appear on the coast and in the highlands; and the commonest rocks on the sierras are trachyte, augite, porphyry, and di-orite. All the large mountains N. of lat. 8° are of trachyte.

Between Lake Titicaca and Ouzco, the more elevated ground bordering the valleys is formed chiefly of clay slate; and in the neighborhood of Arequipa, and thence to Lake Titicaca, the soil is volcanic. The mineral productions, more particularly the precious metals, have been famous ever since the discovery of the country. Gold is found in many places, and nearly all the mountain streams wash it down in small particles. The mountains are interspersed with veins of gold and silver ores, and with copper and lead. In many places gold is found in quavtz. The most celebrated gold mines are those of Oarabaya. The silver ore is particularly rich, frequently yielding from 5 to 50 per cent. This ore constitutes the chief mineral wealth of the country, and presents itself in all forms and combinations, from the pure metal to the lead ore mixed with silver. It is found at the highest elevations yet reached. Mining in Peru has until within a few years been in a backward condition; but with the introduction of improved machinery and lines of railway, this industry, in common with all others, has undergone a favorable change.

The value of the silver produced between 1630 and 1803 has been calculated at $1,232,000,000, of which, according to the records at Madrid, $849,445,-500 were from the three mines of Oerro de Pasco, Hualgayoc, and Huantajaya. In eight years (1826-'33) the silver coined at Lima alone amounted to $20,000,000. Humboldt estimated the average annual yield of the gold and silver mines in Peru at $5,300,000. The yield of the mines of Cerro de Pasco, Puno, Huantajaya, Hualgayoc, etc, in 1873, amounted to $6,000,000 in silver bullion. Silver mines are now worked also near Iquique and Huarochiri. The chief quicksilver mines are those of Huan-cavelica and of Ohota. Lead, iron, aluminum, sulphur, lime, magnesia, and sulphate of soda occur in extensive quantities in the departments of Ayacucho, Huancavelica, Arequipa, Tarapaca, Ancachs, Piura, and Oajamarca; cobalt and nickel are found in the province of Huanta; borax and gypsum are very abundant in many places. The marble and alabaster quarries of Puno and Ayacucho are extensive, several species of the first being highly prized; and writing slate and lithographic stones are plenty. Petroleum occurs in several localities in Piura. In 1825 good coal was discovered at Oerro de Pasco, and still later coal beds were found 18 m.

S. of Ttimbez, and in 1873 at Pa-racas, 8 m. S. of Pisco. Not far from Arica brown coal occurs on the coast; and an extensive coal tract was discovered in 1873 at Sumbay on the railway from Arequipa to Puno, for the working of which a company was organized at Lima with a capital of about $1,800,000. The working of the numerous coal mines has given a fresh impulse to the industrial and commercial activity of the country. The principal source of Peruvian wealth since 1836 has been the guano islands, which however are mere specks when compared with the vast uninhabited and unexplored southern coast line, where innumerable flocks of birds have resorted for ages, and where rain never falls. (See Guano.) "With the new beds discovered in the second half of 1874, it was computed that the total quantity of the substance in all the known localities of the republic was about 26,000,000 tons, some 8,000,000 of which, however, were inaccessible. The remaining 18,000,000, at $37 50, the average current price for the better qualities in Europe, would represent $675,000,000. Other great sources of wealth are the saltpetre and borax of the pampa of Tamarugal in Tarapaca, though the former is too deliquescent to be used in the manufacture of gunpowder.

It is calculated that the saltpetre grounds embrace an area of 50 square leagues. In 1860, 77,000 tons were exported from Iquique. Borax is also shipped, in spite of the government prohibition. In 1873 the saltpetre was constituted a government monopoly; but in 1874 it was contemplated to abandon the monopoly, and apply an export duty. In the latter year 320,-000 tons were shipped. The appearance of the Tarapaca desert resembles that of a country after snow, before the last dirty patches are thawed, from being covered by a thick crust of common salt and of a stratified salifer-ous alluvium, seemingly deposited as the land slowly rose above the sea level. The salt, which is white, very hard, and compact, occurs in water-worn nodules projecting from the agglutinated sand, and is associated with much gypsum. The saltpetre beds follow for a distance of nearly 150 m. the margin of a great basin or plain 3,300 ft. above the sea, which from its outline Darwin pronounces to have once been a lake or more probably an inland arm of the sea, as he infers from the presence of iodic salts in the saline stratum.

A variety of precious stones are found in Peru, which is likewise remarkable for the number of its thermal and mineral springs, many of which are medicinal. - The climate, on the whole regarded as tolerably healthy, differs essentially in the four great topographical divisions: the coast region, the sierras, the table lands, and the eastern plains. The coast is usually called the rainless region; indeed, with the exception of Iquique, where a light shower falls once in very many years, rain is unknown from the river Loa to Cape Blanco, a phenomenon attributed to heated air currents ascending from the vast sand wastes, which in some places are from 45 to 60 m. in width. During the winter, from May to November, there are dense drizzling mists. The hills about Lima, a little more than 1,000 ft. above the sea, are carpeted with moss enamelled with beautiful yellow lilies (aman-cdes), a vegetation indicative of a much greater degree of moisture than at a corresponding altitude in Tarapaca. Northward of Lima the climate grows gradually damper; and in the extreme northwest, beginning from the parallel of Cape Blanco, rains are as copious and the forests as dense as in the littoral region of Ecuador. Toward December, when the dry season has fairly set in, the weather, except for an interval at noon, is for the most part cool and delightful.

The cold current which runs along this coast from the seas adjoining Cape Horn, and the temperature of which is on an average 8° lower than the mean annual temperature of the atmosphere at Callao, tempers the heat on the shores of Peru. The mean heat at Callao does not exceed 60°, and the mercury is frequently as low as 55°. At Lima, 6 m. inland from Callao, and 600 ft. higher, it never falls below 60° in winter, and seldom rises in summer above 80°. The hottest day ever known in Lima was in February, 1791, when the thermometer marked 96°. In Piura, the extreme N. W. province of Peru, the temperature ranges in summer from 80° to 96°, and in winter from 70° to 81°. The situation of the coast region, between the influences of the sea on the one side and the lofty mountains on the other, renders the climate temperate. The rainy season in the sierras, the table lands, and the eastern plains corresponds to the period of drought on the coast. The watery vapors are then wafted from the latter by the sea breeze to the high regions, where they are condensed and fall in heavy showers; whence the phenomenon of the coast rivers drying up in winter and pouring down copious floods in summer.

During the greater part of the year the winds on the coast blow from the south, varying from S. S. E. to S. W.; in the winter months breezes from the north sometimes occur. At some distance from the shore the S. E. trade wind prevails, with greatest strength in winter. Lightning is sometimes seen on the coast of Peru, but thunder is never heard, and storms are quite unknown. In the sierras or highlands and the table lands there is a considerable range of temperature, between the rain line, at about 7,000 ft. above the sea, and the snow line. About 9,000 ft. above the sea the average temperature is 60°, varying little throughout the year, and the seasons are only distinguished as the wet and the dry, the former of which lasts from November to May. The climate of the eastern plains is hot and moist. The moist winds which blow from the Atlantic, over the plains watered by the Amazon and its tributaries, are stopped in their progress toward the Pacific by the Andes, and accumulate clouds which descend in heavy rains accompanied by thunder storms of great violence. These copious rains cause such an excess of moisture that the region is very unhealthy, and few individuals among the Indian tribes scattered along the banks of the rivers reach the age of 50 years.

Ague is unknown in the interior; but on the coast both foreigners and natives, at all seasons, suffer severely. A remarkable phenomenon occurs periodically along the coast from Callao N. as far as Lam-bayeque, a distance of about 500 m., consisting of a fetid, nauseous, and depressing odor, accompanied by changing colors of the water, and a curious discoloration of the white paint both outside and inside of the shipping. The painter, as the phenomenon is called, has by some been attributed to miasmatic effluvia percolating through the land from the Andes, and by others to the decomposition of the excreta washed into the bays at the embouchures of the rivers; whatever the cause may be, the repulsive element most sensibly perceived is sulphuretted hydrogen. The only noticeable physiological effect upon the inhabitants is an aggravated form of cephalalgia. The cold in the higher mountain regions is excessive; hail and thunder storms are frequent and terrific; and such affections as the veta or mareo, producing weariness, blood-spitting, and vertigo, and the surumpe, an acute inflammation of the eyes, sometimes attended with delirium, and caused by the reflection of the solar rays on the snow render these districts unfavorable for prolonged abode. - The flora of Peru is particularly rich and productive.

The soil is everywhere as much as 2 ft. deep, and in many parts 3 ft. Extensive arable tracts, pasture lands, and forests alternate in all directions, except in the most elevated districts, and in a few patches of the shore region. The arboreal vegetation in the north and east is most luxuriant, including a great variety of timber and cabinet woods; and the cinchona groves of the north are equal to those of the famous Loja district in Ecuador. Among the other remarkable trees are the caoutchouc, the qui-llay, serviceable for cleansing woollens, the vegetable silk tree, the copal, yielding a resin efficacious in pulmonary affections, the breadfruit tree, the mulberry, and many others; clove, copaiba, cinnamon, sarsaparilla, ipecacuanha, jalap, indigo, and other useful trees and plants abound. A very important tree is the erythroxylon coca, the leaves of which are extensively used by the Indians as a nutritive stimulant. Especial mention is made of the escabedier and of the cedron, the latter being considered an efficacious antidote for the most deadly poisons.

The tree ferns range between 1,500 and 5,000 ft. above the sea; beyond the height of 10,500 ft. arborescent vegetation disappears; between 6,500 and 13,500 ft. alpine plants are found; and species of the Winter a and Escallonia occur between 9,200 and 10,-800 ft., and form scrubby bushes in the cold and moist climate. The fruits comprise oranges, peaches, apricots, apples, pears, quinces, pomegranates, plums, cherries, bananas or plantains, cocoanuts, dates, mangos, sapotes, medlars, with pineapples, aguacates, chirimo-yas, granadillas, and many others of exquisite flavor unknown in the temperate zones. Peru produces all the cereals and vegetables common to western Europe. Maize in many districts of the montafia or eastern plains yields four good crops annually. The cheno-podium quinoa is commonly cultivated on the table lands as a substitute for the potato, solarium tuberosum, which is likewise abundant in the northern highlands. This region is supposed by some to have furnished, instead of the plains of Bogotii, the first potatoes introduced into Europe. The sweet potato grows plentifully in all the valleys.

Cotton, the sugar cane, the vine, the olive, coffee, and tobacco (in Jaen and Santa) are cultivated for export, but the yield of the last two is as yet inconsiderable; and vanilla and a species of the nopalea cocliinilifera receive attention. Cotton plantations are fast multiplying in the littoral departments from Piura southward to Moquegua, the mean annual production now being about 300,000 bales, and the qualities of the different varieties are ranked as equal to those of middling Orleans, sea island, etc. Sugar plantations are also on the increase in almost all the departments E. and W. of the Cordilleras; and the cacao of Cuzco, where the plant is almost exclusively produced, is said to be superior even to that of Caracas. The vine thrives best in lea and Moquegua, where it bears after the second year. Wines and brandies of excellent quality are produced, especially the wines named " Elias," " Latorre," and " Cabello." As the mulberry is particularly prosperous here, the rearing of the silkworm has of late years become an important industry.

Agriculture on the highlands and the eastern plains is still carried on in the rudest manner, and with almost the same kind of implements found in the country by the Spanish conquerors; but on the coast modern appliances are gradually gaining ground. The fertile valley of Cafiete is occupied with sugar plantations, mostly furnished with perfect labor-saving machinery; and one of them, embracing 10,000 acres, yields rum and sugar of a mean annual value of $2,000,000. All the ploughing is there performed by steam. The tendency at present is to supplant cotton culture with sugar. - The puma, jaguar, and wild cat infest the forests; bears roam in the mountainous districts. The principal game are two varieties of deer, peccaries, tapirs, and rabbits. Among the rodents are the vizca-cha and myriads of mice; and there are foxes, skunks, armadillos, the large and small ant-eater, porcupines, sloths, and in the northwest all the varieties of monkey common to the great Amazonian forests. The llama is indigenous, and, like its congeners the vicufia, .poco vicufia, alpaca, and guanaco (all of which, however, are smaller and slenderer), thrives best in the highlands.

Cattle, horses, mules, and asses are extremely numerous, particularly in the littoral provinces; and countless flocks of sheep are everywhere to be met with in the fertile Andine valleys. The rivers and lakes of the montafia abound in delicious fish, including the salmon, several varieties of which are unknown north of the equator; the manatee or river cow is likewise common in the Apurimac and Ucayali, together with a large cetacean somewhat resembling the sword fish; and huge alligators haunt the banks in such numbers as to render them unapproachable without the utmost caution. Turtles are so abundant that several tribes of Indians carry on a profitable traffic in oil extracted from their eggs. Land lizards are comparatively few, but serpents are extremely common, and embrace several varieties, some of which are among the most venomous, as the rattle and corral snakes, and the hideous trigonocephalus. The condor is here represented in four species; the turkey buzzard is the most efficient scavenger in every town and village; and the varieties of hawks are numerous.

European barn-yard fowls of every species, as well as partridges, snipe, pigeons, turtle doves, pheasants, and other edible wild birds, are plentiful; and there are numerous varieties of parrots, toucans, humming birds, etc. The shores of Peru are frequented by myriads of sea birds (lula variegata), which in the time of the incas were protected by law during incubation, and to which and to numberless seals haunting the coasts and adjacent islands is due the famous manure called guano. - The population is made up of whites, mostly descendants of the early Spanish settlers, various tribes of Indians, negroes, and Chinese, and an endless variety of hybrids from the intermingling of all of them, including cholos, zambos, mulat-toes, and mestizoes. Pure-blooded Africans have gradually diminished in number since the importation of negro slaves ceased in 1793, and the few now remaining are to be found only in the vicinity of the coasts. Slavery was finally abolished in Peru in 1855. The most important of the aboriginal races are the Qui-chuas or Incas and the Aymaras, both of whom shortly after the conquest by the Spaniards embraced Christianity. (See Aymaeas, and Quichuas.) The river banks in the eastern plains are inhabited by independent tribes, some of whom, through the unremitting energy of the missionaries established in the Pampas del Sacramento between the Huallaga and the Ucayali, have become Christians. These cultivate maize, rice, and coca, with a few esculent leguminous plants, cotton from which the wo- • men weave coarse cloths, and annotto, used by some of them to paint their faces.

Some other tribes still wander in their primitive state of savagism, and a very few practise cannibalism. The Spanish branch of the population is frank, mild, loyal, generous, and very hospitable; the men are brave, intelligent, and patriotic. Education has always been common among the better classes, and is now rapidly extending to all grades of society. The Indians are mild and pacific, but indolent and apathetic, and somewhat given to melancholy. The cholos and mestizoes, here as in Bolivia, Colombia, and Mexico, are whimsical and turbulent, and the chief fomenters of the political strifes hitherto so prevalent in the republic. Owing to the insufficiency of hands for the public and other works in the republic, particularly felt after the abolition of slavery, the introduction of Chinese was resorted to, and was extensively carried on for a time, until prohibited by law in 1856. But the next year that law was repealed, and the cooly traffic was briskly resumed, the laborers being brought from the Portuguese colony of Macao, under a treaty with the Portuguese government dated March 26,1853. In the 11 years 1860-'70 the number of coolies embarked at Macao was 43,301, of whom only 38,648 arrived at Callao; and by 1873 more than 80,500 laborers had landed in Peru. To prevent the continuance of abuses, a Peruvian envoy was despatched to Peking in 1872, and a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation was signed June 26, 1874. By a special agreement a Chinese commission was to be sent to Peru to inquire into the condition of the Chinese laborers resident in the republic, the Peruvian government to redress all grievances, and the immigration in future to be under the immediate supervision of Chinese commissioners. (See Cooly.) In 1874 an appropriation of $100,000 annually was initiated for the promotion of immigration from Europe. In the first six months after the passage of the law 1,000 Italians settled in the republic.

Under the new law immigrants can have their passage paid by the government, and acquire national lands on very favorable terms. - The industries hitherto most successfully carried on in Peru are the pastoral, agricultural, and mining; but manufactures are still in a backward state. Nitrate of soda is manufactured on the coast in Tarapaca; sugar, rum, and wines are extensively made; coarse cotton and woollen stuffs, as also straw hats, mats, coarse earthenware, and other articles for domestic use, are made by the Indians; in the vicinity of Callao and Lima there are brick and lime kilns, glass works, and a paper factory, the paper being made from the yuca plant; and dyeing, tanning, soap making, and the preparation of glue are carried on. In Lima there are steam saw mills and flour mills, cotton factories, breweries, and extensive gas works. At Monsefu there is a copper foundery, where are manufactured nearly all the sugar pans used on the Peruvian plantations. - The two great staples of export are guano and nitrate of soda; both are almost exclusively sent to Great Britain. Other exports are Peruvian bark, sugar, cotton, and wines, especially those of Pisco, which somewhat resemble Madeira wines. The cotton shipped in 1870 was 106,000 bales.

Sugar is likewise becoming a prominent article of export to Liverpool. • Except for the port of Callao, it is impossible to obtain accurate information relating to the value of the foreign trade of Peru, which is estimated at $55,000,-000 annually, of which $25,000,000 is for imports. Great Britain supplies the woollen, linen, and cotton fabrics, railway material, and coal; France the silks, fancy goods, and wines; while machinery of all kinds, agricultural implements, American manufactures in general, provisions, lumber, and petroleum are furnished by the United States, the last named commodity being sent from California and Oregon. The total value of the exports to Great Britain for a series of years has been as follows: 1868, $17,000,130; 1869, $19,962,-360; 1870, $24,405,375; 1871, $19,859,840; 1872, $21,058,615; 1873, $26,597,860. The total value of the imports from the same country in the same period was as follows: 1868, $5,661,865; 1869, $6,908,475; 1870, $8,805,-865; 1871, $10,798,850; 1872, $14,351,195; 1873, $12,623,110. From the following synopsis for the port of Callao may be formed an idea of the trade with the United States. In the year ending Sept. 30, 1872, there entered 118 American vessels, with an aggregate tonnage of 124,085, and cargoes of lumber, wheat, coal, sperm oil, railway ties, etc, of a total value of $3,641,695; and the number of vessels cleared for the United States was 114, aggregate tonnage 115,604, mostly laden with guano, the total value of the cargoes being $4,039,352. The total shipments of petroleum from the United States in the year 1871-2 comprised 181,629 gallons; in 1872-'3, 233,490; and in 1873-'4, 272,555. The value of the produce and bullion shipped from the port of Arica in 1866 was $3,898,733; 1867, $3,510,760 50; 1868, $3,758,172; 1869, $3,353,443 25; 1870, $3,936,531 12; 1871, $4,882,232 75; 1872, $5,427,290 37; and up to June 30, 1873, they reached $2,510,608 08. The steamers of four lines, English, French, German, and Chilian, numbering 59, are engaged in the carrying service between Callao and Panama, and Callao and the southern ports of Chili, and also between Callao and European ports via the straits of Magellan. The steamers touching at only the principal ports on the coast are weekly, and those calling at all ports semi-weekly. The coasting trade is very extensive, and is carried on, besides the steamers already referred to, by a Peruvian merchant navy comprising (in 1869) 95 vessels with a total of 9,596 tons, 11 being steamers, with an aggregate of 435 tons.

Lake Titicaca is now navigated by steamers plying regularly between Puno and the Bolivian ports on the S. E. shore; and the thorough exploration of the eastern rivers, after seven years of constant labor, has been terminated, the hy-drographical commission having arrived about the middle of 1874 within 140 m. of the terminus of the Oroya railway. There is a regular service of steamers on the Huallaga and the Ucayali. - The following government railways are completed or in process of construction (1875) under the direction of the American contractor Henry Meiggs:

LINES.

Length.

Cost.

Year of completion.

Callao and Oroya.........

180 m. 107

$25,875,000

1874

Mollendo and Arequipa...

11,250,000

1870

Arequipa and Puno....

222

30,000,000

1873

Puno and Cuzco....

230

23,437,500

1874

Chimbote and Huaraz....

172

22,500,000

1876

Ilo and Moquegua.......

63

6,281,250

1872

Pacasmayo, Guadalupe, and Magdalena.....

83

6,656,250

1873

Total................

1,007 m.

$126,000,000

....

The following railways belong to private individuals: Cerro de Pasco to Pasco (silver mines), 15 m.; Iquique to the Noria, 37 m.; Pisagua to Sal de Obispo, 35 m.; Eten to FerreSafe, 28 m. The following state railways were contracted for by private individuals, to be completed in 1876:

LINES.

Length.

Cost.

Tacna to Bolivia (government share in this line $75,000)...................

108 m.

$5,625,000

Lima to Huacho...

89 1/2

8,750,000

Pisco to lea (finished 1873)...........

48

1,364,062

Payta to Piura...

63

1,687,500

Lima to Pisco....

144

9,375,000

Huacho to Layan....

36

2,250,000

Total...........................

488 1/2m.

$24,051,562

The following lines are projected, all but the three last by the government: Oroya to Chan-camayo, 80 m.; Tacna to Puno, 301 m.; Sa-laverry to Ascope, 40 m.; Oroya, Jauja, and Ayacucho, 240 m.; Chancay to Cerro de Pasco, 120 m.; Trujillo to Eten, 148 m.; Huacho to Lambayeque, 560 m.; total, 1,489 m. The aggregate cost of these lines was to be $210,-000,000. The following lines, costing $6,000,-000, belong to English companies: Arica to Tacna (6 per cent, security), 39 1/2 m.; Callao to Lima, and Lima to Chorillos, 15 1/2 m.; total, 55 m. When the foregoing lines are completed, Peru will have an aggregate of 3,194 1/2 m. of railway (exclusive of a branch of the Arequipa and Puno railway, to be extended to La Paz in Bolivia), at a cost of about $390,-000,000; to which should be added at least $85,000,000 for water works, besides the immense sums required for the ramifications of some of the lines, which cannot be estimated at less than $125,000,000. Except those on the table lands, there are few good common roads in the country, and the internal carrying is almost exclusively performed by mules, llamas, and Indians. There was in 1873 about 1,000 m. of telegraph in the republic, but the service was neither efficient nor productive.

Many of the lines pass over barren deserts, traversed only by the muleteers and Indians of the coast, and the distances between the stations are very long, All the lines now belong to the state. A coast cable is shortly to place Payta in communication with Panama, and another will extend to Chili; both were contracted for in 1874; they will connect with the great Atlantic telegraph network. - The present constitution of Peru was promulgated on Aug. 31, 1867. The legislative power is vested in a senate and a house of representatives, the former composed of two deputies for each province, and the latter of representatives appointed by the electoral colleges of provinces and parishes, at the rate of one member for every 20,000 inhabitants. The deputies to the provincial colleges are chosen by the parochial electoral colleges, who in turn send representatives to congress. In 1872 the senate comprised 40 members, and the house of representatives 80. The president and vice presi-den are elected by the people for a term of five years. The president is aided by five ministers appointed by himself, respectively in charge of the departments of the interior, foreign affairs, finance and commerce, justice, and war and the navy.

The judiciary comprises a supreme court, and superior and lower courts; and the various municipalities are decentralized. The general officers of the army are one grand marshal, four generals of division, and 26 generals of brigade. There are eight battalions of infantry, with 270 officers and 5,600 men, exclusive of about 5,500 gendarmes; three regiments of cavalry, with 120 officers and 1,200 men; and two regiments and one squadron of artillery, with 100 officers and 1,000 men; total strength, 8,290. The artillery in 1873 had 56 pieces of cannon, 36 of which were rifled. The navy consists of six ironclads, mounting 38 guns, and six other steamers with an armament of 56 guns; total, 94 guns. These vessels were for the most part built in London. The national revenue is mainly derived from the custom house, the sale of guano, and miscellaneous receipts, such as licenses. The constitution provides for security of person, life, property, domicile, and correspondence; for individual liberty, and liberty of assemblage (without arms), conscience, and industry; free trade, free teaching, and a free press; and absolute equality before the law.

The revenue in 1873 was $23,499,653, and the expenditures were $17,380,406. The foreign debt is made up as follows: loans of 1860-'64, at 4 1/2 per cent., £1,300,000; consolidated 5 per cent, loan of 1865, £10,000,000; railway 6 per cent, of 1870, £11,920,000; railway 5 per cent, of 1872, £15,000,000; total, £38,220,000, or $196,100,000. The 6 per cent, loan of 1870 was issued at the price of 82 1/2, and the 5 per cent, loan of 1872 at 72. The loan of 1872 was intended to be for the nominal amount of £36,800,000, but provisionally there was issued (in July, 1872) only £15,000,000. All these loans, secured by the guano deposits and other resources of the country, are payable in 20 years by means of sinking funds. - The public institutions of Peru, including the palace of industry and several benevolent institutions, are mainly in the capital. The postal service is thoroughly organized. There are in Lima nine banks, five insurance establishments, mostly branches of British companies, and two agricultural associations.

The aggregate capital of these institutions is estimated at $190,000,-000. - In no country of Spanish America has public instruction been the object of more sedulous care than in Peru. The number of pupils is set down at 100,000 in the various educational establishments of the republic, comprising primary and grammar schools for both sexes^ distributed through the various towns and villages, and in the capital normal schools, schools of arts and trades, agriculture, commerce, mines, fine arts, and a naval and military school; besides which there are the six universities of Lima (considered the first in South America), Arequipa, Puno, Cuzco, Ayacucho, and Tru jillo. Education is compulsory and gratuitous. The religion of the state is the Roman Catholic, the public exercise of no other being lawful. - The earliest history of Peru is that of the incas, whose empire at the height of their power extended from Quito to the Rio Maule in Chili, and eastward to the eastern slope of the Andes, and southward as far as Tucuman. In this region there were nations of different language and origin gradually brought under the inca sway.

The incas themselves seem to have sprung from a tribe of the Quichuas, who were widely scattered, nearly through the whole length of the empire, divided by tribes of other families, and who still form the mass of the Peruvian population. By a careful census in 1796 they were estimated at 934,000. Their language, often called that of the incas, was harmonious and became highly cultivated. It was adapted to poetry, and dramas, love songs, and poems were composed in it before and after the Spanish conquest, and are still popular. That entitled 01-lantay has been published, and gives a favorable idea of their culture. In early times the haravecs or bards and amantas or literati preserved their annals and literature by means of quipus or knotted cords. The coast was occupied by the Yuncas, whose capital was at Gran Chimu, near Trujillo, and who had a famous temple at Pachacamac, and an oracle at Rimac. Remains of this people still exist at Moche and Eten, retaining their ancient language, which is entirely distinct from the Quichua. The Aymaras extended from the western shore of Lake Titicaca down into Bolivia, with Quichua tribes around them. They still hold their own, a sombre people, with disproportionate trunks, and rather undersized.

Their language differs in many terms from the Quichua, but the great majority of words are the same and the grammatical structure is identical. East of Lake Titicaca were the Puquinas, who seem to have been of the Aymara stock, and the still wilder Uros, living on rafts in the lake. Tiahuanaco, near Lake Titicaca, has rude stone dolmens and rude pillars like Stonehenge, and later structures evincing a highly advanced state, consisting of monolithic gateways covered with sculptures, differing entirely from all'other monuments in Peru, whether Aymara, Inca, or Yunca. Man-co Capac, the first inca, appeared according to the traditions, with his sister Mama Oello, on Titicaca island, a spot ever after held holy. These two, claiming to be children of the sun, were regarded as deities'. Manco Capac proceeded northward, and, founding Cuzco at the spot where his golden staff sank into the ground, introduced civilization and the arts. A powerful kingdom.-arose, and gradually absorbed the neighboring tribes. Capac Yupan-qui, the fifth inca, reduced the Aymaras, and four years afterward the Quichuas. His successor conquered the Chancas or Antis, who had forced their way into his territory.

The Chincha or Yunca monarch of Chimu fought desperately, but was at last conquered by Pa-chacutec, and the incas then overran the coast. They compelled all the conquered nations to adopt their sun worship, but they spared the temples of the idols Pachacamac and Ri-mac, which were held in great veneration, though they erected sun temples near them. The last exploit of inca power was the annexation of Quito, but this led to a civil war which made Spanish conquest easy. There is great difficulty in ascertaining the precise date of the accession of the first inca, which tradition refers to the opening of the 11th century, while some writers carry it back to within 500 years of the deluge, and fancifully bring the new race from Armenia to the shores of Titicaca. The ruling inca, as son of the sun, and a lineal descendant of Manco Oapac, was at once sovereign and pontiff, exercising absolute authority. His person was sacred in life, and his body after death received divine honors. He had many wives, but the principal one, whose eldest son was heir to the throne, must be his eldest sister, or, if he had no sister, his nearest kinswoman (cousin, niece, or aunt). His concubines were numerous.

The heir was educated by the amautas or sages; but before his admission into the huaracu (a sort of knighthood) he was nowise distinguished from the inca's other sons. The empire and the capital were divided into four quarters, corresponding to the cardinal points, each in the rural districts governed by a viceroy; the inhabitants were divided into groups of 10,000, under a native chief and inca governor; and these into subgroups of 1,000, 100, and 10, with appropriate officers, each responsible to those above him. The right of every individual to a portion of the earth sufficient to support life was clearly recognized. All cultivable lands were divided into three parts: one devoted to the support of religion, another to the inca, and the third to the people at large. Each Peruvian received a portion of land called a topu, producing maize enough for a man and his wife; on the birth of a son he received another topu, and on the birth of a daughter half a topu. On the death of an individual his land reverted to the state for reallotment. Children were obliged to follow the professions of their fathers, and must not receive an education superior to their position in life.

No one could change his residence without permission from his superior. "Tell no lies," "Do not kill," were the concise terms in which the laws were promulgated. Idleness was severely punished, and homicides and robbers were put to death; but those who sinned against religion or the sacred majesty of the inca were burned or buried alive, with their families and friends, their houses were levelled, the trees on their lands cut down, and the lands themselves laid waste. When a province rebelled against the emperor, all the males in it were slain. The first care of the incas, after reducing a nation or province, was to gradually mould its people into the Quichuan system, reinstating over them their own chiefs in the capacity of officers of the empire. The Quichuan language was taught to the children of the new vassals, and took the place of their own. To secure the new acquisitions from rebellion, colonies of from 8,000 to 10,000 individuals, from provinces of tried fidelity, were settled in the subjugated territory, in place of an equal number removed thence to other parts of the empire; and to reconcile these colonists to their new conditions, they were invested with many privileges and treated with marked partiality.

Thus by a complex system of liberality and severity, persuasion and force, the inca empire was not only extended, but the conquered nations were effectually amalgamated and moulded into a compact whole. Not content, however, with concentrating in themselves the functions of government and religion, the inca stock monopolized also the advantages of instruction and all that there was of science. Their wisdom was chiefly political and practical. Territorial extension being their leading object, military science received their closest attention; but none were highly educated, even in this department, except the young men of the. blood royal. "When the monarch died, or, as it was termed, was "called home to the mansion of his father, the sun," his body was embalmed and invested with royal robes, seated in a chair of gold, in the great temple of the sun in Ouzco. His obsequies were performed with the greatest pomp, and his favorite servants and wives were buried with him. - In 1512 Yasco Nunez de Balboa, the Spanish governor of a small colony in Darien, was informed by a son of the cacique Oomogra that there was a country to the southward' where gold was in common use, and of as little value among the people as iron among the Spaniards; but his attempt to discover it was unsuccessful.

A portion of the coast was explored in 1522 by Pascual de Andagoya. In 1524 Francisco Pizarro reached the coast, in company with the vicar Hernando de Luque and Diego de Almagro, an illiterate adventurer like himself; but he immediately returned to Panama, whence he had set out. A second and equally fruitless attempt was made by the adventurers in 1526. In January, 1531, having obtained the title of adelantado gooerna-dor and captain general of all the territory he should conquer, Pizarro again set sail with his four brothers and a small band of men, leaving Almagro behind to procure provisions and reinforcements, and landed at St. Matthew's bay, about lat. 1° N., after a voyage of about 14 days. The adventurers phandered a town in the province of Ooaque; and being reenforced by the arrival of about 130 men, they began building a town in the valley of Tangarala, calling it San Miguel. The empire of the incas, having been divided into two branches, Ouzco and Cajamarca, was now distracted by civil war between the two brothers Huascar of the former and Atahuallpa of the latter, to whom their father Huayna Capac had bequeathed equal shares of his kingdom.

Atahuallpa had recently gained a complete victory over his brother and taken him prisoner, and was now encamped with his army at Cajamar-ca, whither Pizarro marched to meet him, in September, 1532, at the head of 177 men. Received with apparent friendship, he managed treacherously to make the inca captive without losing one of his own men. The Peruvian army lied in dismay. Atahuallpa offered as the price of his liberty to fill the apartment in which he was confined with gold; but after the precious ornaments of the temples and palaces had been contributed in amount equal when melted down to more than $17,500,000, Pizarro caused his royal captive to be put to death, Aug. 29, 1533. The Spaniards now marched toward Ouzco, the ancient capital, entered it on Nov. 15, and proclaimed as inca a half brother of Atahuallpa, named Manco Capac. Meantime the captive Huascar had been slain by order of Atahuallpa a short time before the latter's death. Pizarro now determined to build a new capital near the coast, and the valley of the river Rimac was selected as its site.

It was founded Jan. 6, 1535, and called Ciudad de los Reyes, or "city of the kings;" its present name has probably been derived from that of the river, corrupted by the Spaniards into Lima. Manco Capac, exasperated at the treatment he received, escaped from Cuzco, placed himself at the head of an insurrection, besieged and set fire to the city, and ordered the massacre of many of the Spaniards who resided on farms cultivated by the forced labor of the Indians. Reinforcements were cut off; Jauja was also attacked, and Lima was threatened; but the Peruvians, to avoid starvation, were at last obliged to raise the siege in order to cultivate their fields. Shortly afterward a dispute between Pizarro and Almagro led to open warfare, and a battle was fought April 26, 1538, resulting in the defeat and capture of Almagro by Pizarro's brother Hernando, and his subsequent execution. The condition of the country was now deplorable. All the ancient institutions were overthrown, and the rights of Indians and Spaniards were equally disregarded. The conquerors had apportioned the land and inhabitants together as the spoils of victory; the Peruvians were reduced to the most abject servitude, and Manco Capac had little difficulty in raising them to arms whenever he saw fit.

Pizarro prepared to establish military settlements in the country, strongly fortifying the houses, and giving to each settler a certain portion of land and a certain number of serfs to cultivate it. Reports of these oppressions finally reached Spain, and in 1540 Vaca de Castro was sent out as judge royal to examine into and if possible put an end to them, or in case of Pizarro's death to produce his warrant as royal governor. But before he could reach LimaiPizarro had been assassinated (June 26,1541) ap the instigation of Almagro's son, who proclaimed himself governor, collected a considerable force, and gave battle to Castro near Jauja, Sept. 16, 1542. Defeated after an obstinate struggle, Almagro was made prisoner and put to death, and Castro applied himself with considerable success to improving the condition of the country. But he was soon superseded by Blasco Nunez Vela, who came as viceroy, and charged with the execution of new laws, chiefly concerning the gradual or in-mediate liberation of the Indians, and the establishment of a relatively equitable system of taxation upon them. These measures gave rise to a civil war.

Gonzalo Pizarro, the last of that family now left in Peru, assumed the title of procurator general, and, favored by the rashness of the viceroy Vela, who was finally deposed by the audiencia or supreme court, soon collected a formidable force, entered the capital, and assumed regal state. A new viceroy, Pedro de la Gasca, was now sent from Spain to reestablish order. Gonzalo, after an insignificant victory over the royalists at Huarina, was captured in 1548, and executed by order of Gasca. The latter now turned his attention to establishing the government of the country upon a solid basis, and that accomplished he returned to Spain in 1550. With a few trifling exceptions, the colony remained quiet for many years, and the authority of the Spanish crown was completely established. The empire of the incas, with some slight alterations of boundaries, became one of the four viceroyalties of Spanish America. In 1718 the province of Quito was separated from it and annexed to the newly created viceroy-alty of New Granada. In 1776 the provinces of La Plata, Potosi, Charcas, Chiquitos, and Paraguay were separated.from Peru to form the government of Buenos Ayres; and Guatemala, Venezuela, Caracas, Cumana, and Chili were formed into separate administrations.

The Peruvians under Tupac Amaru, a pretended inca, rebelled in 1780, but were easily subdued. In the war of independence, Peru was the last of the Spanish American possessions to rebel. In 1820 Gen. San Martin, to whom Chili already owed her independence, entered the country at the head of an army of Chilians and Buenos Ayreans, took.possession of the capital, and, after a succession of victories, compelled the Spaniards to retire to the interior. On July 28, 1821, San Martin declared Peru independent, and was unanimously proclaimed protector. He afterward became unpopular, and was constrained to resign on Aug. 19, 1822; and in February, 1824, Bolivar was made dictator. The Spaniards, after an obstinate contest, were finally defeated by Gen. Sucre in the memorable battle of Ayacucho, Dec. 9, 1824. In January, 1826, they were driven from Callao, their last stronghold in Peruvian territory. Bolivar resigned the dictatorship in 1825, after having matured his plans for separating the S. and S. E. provinces to form a new republic which adopted his name.

A revolution took place in 1826; the constitution promulgated by Bolivar was abolished, and a new one, founded upon that of the United States, was adopted in 1827. In 1836 Santa Cruz, president of Bolivia, entered the country with an army, and was proclaimed supreme protector of the Bolivio-Peru-vian confederation, which lasted till 1839. In May, 1837, war was declared against Chili; but peace was restored in November of the same year. A congress assembled, and Ga-marra, who then governed provisionally, was appointed president. He was killed in battle in Bolivia in November, 1841, and Menendez, president of the council of state, succeeded him, but was forcibly deposed in August, 1842, by Gen. Forico. A series of civil wars now ensued during the successive administrations of Vidal, Figuerola, and Vivanco; but Gen. Castilla brought them to an end in 1844, and replaced Menendez in power. Castilla himself was subsequently elected president, and inaugurated on April 1, 1845, and for six years peace and order were maintained, and the material interests of the country were developed in a degree hitherto unparalleled. In 1851 Gen. Echenique was elected president.

His government was accused of the grossest frauds, and Castilla stirred up a revolution in the south, overthrowing Echenique in 1855. Peru was now placed at the disposal of Castilla; but Vivanco incited an insurrection against him, and gained over the commanders of all the ships of war then on the coast, except a small steamer which was protected by the mole of Callao. The fleet threatened to take Callao, and Castilla garrisoned it with a force of nearly 400 Europeans and North Americans under the command of an artillery officer named Smith, which repulsed Vivanco's attack with such severe loss that he retired to Arequipa, a place which had always been faithful to his party. His fleet kept possession of the sea, and at one time held the Chincha islands. On Jan. 24, 1858, two American vessels, the Lizzie Thompson and Georgiana, were captured while loading guano on the coast of the province of Arequipa, by a small steamer of Castilla's; and several other ships were subsequently seized under similar circumstances. The Peruvian government in 1873 paid with interest the amount claimed by the owners of the vessels for damages. Arequipa was taken by assault by Castilla in March, 1858, after a most obstinate and gallant defence.

Though slavery was abolished in Peru by the charter of independence, it still existed till Castilla freed the slaves by proclamation in 1855. In 1859 and 1860 the port of Guayaquil was blockaded by a Peruvian force; and in the latter year Castilla landed troops and proclaimed Franco, a minion of his own, president of Ecuador; but the new ruler, having no means of enforcing his authority except those supplied by his ally, was shortly afterward obliged to leave the country. All efforts to overthrow Castilla's government failed. An attempt was made to assassinate him in the streets of Lima in August, 1860, followed by a more serious one three months afterward, when a company of soldiers entered his house early in the morning. Castilla managed to escape in his shirt to the street, and the soldiers shot the officers in charge. A long contest ensued between the Vivanco and Castilla parties; but the latter was enabled to retain the power till the expiration of Castilla's term. In May, 1862, Gen. San Ramon was elected president; he entered upon his functions in October of the same year, and died in April, 1863. His administration was marked by conciliatory tendencies.

The Spaniards having in 1864 (Gen. Pe-zet being in power at the time) seized the Chincha islands, a war ensued; but peace was concluded in January, 1865, the Peruvians agreeing to pay a war indemnity of $3,000,000, and the Spaniards to- restore the Chincha islands. This treaty gave much dissatisfaction. Pezet was decreed a traitor, and the vice president Canseco was called to replace him. The treaty with Spain was rejected in November by Prado, who had meantime been appointed provisional dictator, and who in December concluded a treaty of alliance with Chili, and in January, 1866, declared war against Spain. On May 2 the Spaniards were defeated by the allies, and on the 10th they withdrew from the Peruvian waters. In 1867 the present constitution was adopted, and a treaty of friendship, commerce, and navigation was signed between Chili and Peru. At the end of that year a revolution broke out against Prado, and he was compelled, on Jan. 10, 1868, to resign his office and embark for Chili. On July 28 Col. Balta was proclaimed president, and he was assassinated in July, 1872, at the instigation of Gen. Gutierrez, then minister of war.

As soon as peace was restored, Don Manuel Pardo was elected president almost unanimously, and his admin-istration has thus far been peaceful, with prosperity in every branch of national industry. Railways have been rapidly extended, river navigation inaugurated, telegraph wires spread over the land, the finances reorganized, and education placed within the reach of all. Nevertheless, an attempt was made to assassinate him in August, 1874. Peru was visited in 1868 by a disastrous earthquake, which, with its accompanying tidal wave, laid waste several towns, both on the coast and in the interior. (See Aeioa, Arequipa, Callao, and Lima.) - See Prescott, "History of the Conquest of Peru" (2 vols., New York, 1847); Rivero and Tschu-di, " Peruvian Antiquities," translated by F. L. Hawks (New York, 1855); C. R. Markham, "Travels in Peru and India" (London, 1862); "Reports on the Discovery of Peru," translated and edited by C. R. Markham (London, 1872); V. F. Lopez, Les races aryennes du Perou (Paris, 1873); T. J. Hutchinson, "Two Years in Peru, with Explorations of its Antiquities" (London, 1873).