Abdication, the abandonment of a throne by a crowned head, was rare and generally compulsory in ancient times. The abdication of Diocletian and Maximian is the best known case in antiquity. Among modern princes who have more or less voluntarily laid down their crowns, we find Charles V. of Spain and Germany (1556); Christina of Sweden (1654); in Poland, John Casimir (1669); in Spain, Philip V. (1724) and Charles IV. (1808); in Savoy and Sardinia, Amadeus VIII. (1434), Victor Amadeus II. (1730), Victor Emanuel I. (1821), and Charles Albert (1849); in France, Napoleon I. (1814 and 1815), Charles X. (1830), and Louis Philippe (1848); in Holland, Louis Bonaparte (1810) and William I. (1840); in Bavaria, Louis I. (1848); in Austria, Ferdinand (1848). The most recent and one of the most remarkable of royal abdications is that of King Amadeus of Spain, who after a reign of two years became disgusted with the difficulties of his position, and on Feb. 11, 1873, resigned the crown for himself and heirs, and returned to his native Italy. Abdication, voluntary or compulsory, is considered by jurists as a personal act, which in no wise affects the right of succession.