I. An ancient city of Asia Minor, on the narrowest part of the Hellespont, opposite Sestos, originally the possession of the Trojan prince Asius, and later occupied by the Thracians and Milesians. It is celebrated in connection with the army of Xerxes and the immense bridge built by him at this spot, 480 B. C. Here the tragedy of Hero and Leander took place, according to the poetical legend, and here Lord Byron swam across in imitation of that luckless lover.
II. An ancient city (originally This, now Arabat el-Matfoon) of Upper Egypt, on the canal called the Bahr Yusuf, 6 m. W. of the Nile and about 60 m. below Thebes. It was anciently the second city of the Thebaid, the birthplace of Menes, and the reputed burial place of Osiris, and hence a great necropolis. There are numerous very ancient tombs cut in the adjacent hills, but its most remarkable remains are the palace of Memnon and the temple of Osiris. In the latter was discovered in 1818 the celebrated "tablet of Abydos," or Ramses table, at present in the British museum, upon which is inscribed in hieroglyphics a genealogy of the 18th dynasty of the Pharaohs. Dumichen, in his explorations (1864-'5) of the interior of the temple of Osiris, found a new Egyptian table, which Lepsius calls the Sethos table. It is more complete than that of Ramses, contains 65 shields and an uninterrupted record of the kings of the first three dynasties, beginning with Menes, corresponding with the account of Manetho, and is regarded as more perfect than the table of Sakkarah. This discovery is believed to be important in respect to the researches into the most remote eras of Egypt.
Bass-Relief at Abydos, Egypt. (From a Photograph.)