Adamawa, the Mohammedan name, while Fumbina is the pagan one, of a country of central Africa visited and described for the first time by Dr. Barth in the summer of 1851. It lies between lat. 6° 30' and 11° 30' N., and lon. 11° and 16° E. It is about 200 m. long from S.W. to N. E.; its breadth seldom exceeds 70 m. Its capital is Yola, near the N.W. border, a city of about 12,000 inhabitants, where the governor, who owes allegiance to the Foo-lah sultan of Sackatoo, resides. It is a Mohammedan sub-kingdom engrafted upon a mixed stock of pagan tribes, the conquest of the valorous and fanatic Foolah chieftain Adama (whence the name Adamawa) over the great pagan kingdom of Fumbina. The governor at the time of Barth's visit was Adama's son. The native inhabitants were, however, far from being wholly subdued, several districts (especially that about Mount Alantika, 40 m. S. of Yola) being still quite independent and constantly at war. It is one of the finest countries of central Africa, irrigated by numerous rivers, such as the Benuwe, or left branch of the Quorra or Niger, and the Faro, and diversified with hill and dale. In general it is flat, rising gradually toward the south to 1,500 feet or more, and broken by separate hills or extensive groups of mountains.
The grain commonly grown in the country is the holcus sorghum. Meat is so dear that a goat will often bring the price of a female slave. Ground nuts are plentiful. The elephant is exceedingly frequent. The most singular animal is the ay u, a mammal resembling a seal, living in the river, and feeding by night on the fresh grass on the river banks. There is an indigenous variety of ox, but quite a distinct species, not three feet high, of a dark gray color, called muturu. Excellent iron is found. The standard of value is the native cotton, woven in narrow strips called leppi, of about 2 1/2 inches in width. Soap is a very important article in any country inhabited by the Foolahs, and it is prepared in every household. The Mohammedan population dress both well and decently. The pagans wear simply a narrow leathern strap between their legs and fastened on their loins. There are several Arab colonies, and Arab architects are employed by the governor. Slavery exists on an immense scale, and many private individuals own more than 1,000 slaves.
The governor of Yola, who calls himself a sultan, receives every year in tribute, besides horses and cattle, 5,000 slaves. (See Foolahs.)