Adrianople (anc. Hadrianopolis; Turk. Edirneh; Fr. Andrinople), a city of European Turkey, capital of the vilayet of Edirneh, situated on the Maritza (the ancient Hebrus), in ancient Thrace, about 180 m. N. W. of Constantinople. The population is variously estimated from 100,000 to 150,000, at least one third of whom are Greeks, and the rest Turks, Armenians, Jews, Franks, etc. The scenery of the city is beautiful; the gardens on the banks of the Maritza and the neighboring village of Hisekel, inhabited by the wealthy merchants, are delightful; but the interior of the straggling city is, like that of most Turkish towns, dirty and desolate. Even the picturesque effect of the 40 mosques, among which is the famous one of Selim II., built of materials furnished by the ruins of Famagosta in Cyprus, is impaired by the wretched surroundings. The most capacious bazaar, named after Ali Pasha, is the centre of trade, which is considerable, the city being the focus of the whole of Thrace. It is also the residence of a governor general, a Greek archbishop, foreign consuls, 'and missionaries. Wool, silks, cotton, dyestuffs, carpets, opium, and attar of roses are the principal articles of commerce.
Quince preserve is one of the special products of Adrianople. - The town was founded by the emperor Hadrian, and soon attained great commercial and military importance. It was the scene of famous encounters in the times of the Romans, the Byzantine empire, and the crusades. Frederick Barbarossa concluded a treaty there in 1190 with the Greeks, and Baldwin I. was defeated and captured in the city in 1205 by the Bulgarians. Taken by the sultan Mu-rad I. in 1361, it remained the Turkish capital until the taking of Constantinople in 1453. Charles XII. spent some time in 1713 in the neighboring castle of Timurtash, previous to his residing at Demotika. In 1829 Adrianople was captured by the Russian general Diebitsch, and a treaty of peace was signed there on Sept. 14, 1829, between Russia and Turkey, in virtue of which the Danubian principalities were restored to the Porte. The Pruth, and from its mouth the Danube, were made the dividing line between the two countries, and the boundaries of their respective Asiatic possessions were agreed upon.
Russia obtained the privilege of trading with all parts of the Turkish empire, the navigation of the Danube, the Black sea, and the Mediterranean, and the passage of the Dardanelles, upon the same terms with the most favored nations, besides a full indemnity for her war expenses.