Aix-La-Chapelle (Ger. Aachen), a town of Rhenish Prussia, capital of the administrative district of the same name, 43 m. by railway W. S. W. of Cologne; pop. in 1871, 74,238. it is pleasantly situated on rising ground, is a centre for Rhenish industry, and is the focus of an important net of railways connecting Belgium, Holland, and Germany. The annual export of cloth to the United States amounts to about 81,500,000. The Aachen-Munich fire insur-ance company and the savings bank are the greatest enterprises of the kind in Germany. The value of mineral products furnished by one of the joint-stock companies amounted in 1869 to 2,491,000 thalers. Railroad iron is manufactured to a very large amount, and there are also flourishing manufactures of woollens, silks, | hosiery, shawls, buttons, clocks, pins, railway and other carriages, tobacco, and cigars. A polytechnic school for the Rhenish provinces and for Westphalia was opened Oct. 10, 1870. The town is handsomely built, and contains a fine Gothic town house, and a beautiful cathe-dral, in which is the tomb of Charlemagne, who made this his favorite residence.

A collection of famous relics, presented to Charle-magne by the patriarch of Jerusalem and the caliph Haroun-al-Rashid, is kept in a tower at the west end of the cathedral, and exposed to public view once in seven years. Until 1558 all the German emperors were crowned here, and their portraits, together with Charlemagne's chair and many other interesting historical memorials, are preserved either in the cathedral or in the town hall. The imperial insignia were removed to Vienna in 1793. The burghers enjoyed rare exemptions and privileges until the reformation, which was warmly espoused by the citizens. After desperate contests, however, the Catholics, with the aid of Spanish soldiery from the Netherlands, suppressed Protestantism, and the privileges were taken away from the city. The population is now Catholic, excepting about 3,000 Protestants and 400 Jews. A magnificent monument in commemoration of the warriors of 1866, by Friedrich Drake, was inaugurated in 1872. - Aix-la-Chapelle is renowned for its mineral baths, which were known to the Romans, by whom the place was called Aquisgranum, either from an epithet of Apollo, to whom thermal springs were sacred, or from Severus Granius, a Roman commander about A. D. 125. The waters contain sulphur, and have a heat of 131° F. They are very beneficial in skin and paralytic affections.

In the suburb of Borcette (Burtscheid) there are also springs, both hot and cold, which arc not impregnated with sulphur. - Treaty of, 1668. At the death of Philip IV. of Spain, 1665, Louis XIV., his son-in-law, asserting a claim to parts of the Spanish dominions in right of his wife, Maria Theresa, under the Brabant laws of devolution, commenced the war of succession and seized the province of Franche-Comte, together with several fortresses and strongholds in the Netherlands. The Spaniards were unable to make head against such commanders as Conde and Turenne, and Holland, alarmed at the progress of the French, concluded the triple alliance with England and Sweden. Iguiis accepted mediation in preference to the alternative of arms, and a congress at Aix-la-Chapelle ended in a treaty, May 2, 1668, by which Franche-Comte was restored to Spain, but several of the strong towns in the Netherlands, including Lille and Valenciennes, were retained by France. - Treaty of, 1748. The Austrian war of succession had arisen from the claims raised by several German princes in opposition to Maria Theresa, who succeeded to the throne of her father, Charles VI., in virtue of the pragmatic sanction.

The war lasted from 1740 to 1747, and almost all the powers in Europe were engaged on one side or the other - England and France being, as usual, opponents. The preliminaries were signed in April, 1748, and ratified in October. The pragmatic sanction was renewed, and the status quo ante helium of most of the parties restored. Frederick the Great remained in possession of Silesia, which he had conquered. Austria ceded, besides, to Sardinia, some portions of the Milanese territory; and to Philip, the brother of the king of Spain, Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla. - The Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818) was held for the purpose of settling outstanding questions incident to the wars concluded by the treaties of Vienna. It was attended by the emperors of Austria and Russia and the king of Prussia in person, and by the representatives of the allied powers, Prince Metter-nich, Lord Castlereagh, the duke of Wellington, Counts Hardenberg, Bernstorff, Nessel-rode, and Capo d'Istria. France, being invited to cooperate, sent the duke de Richelieu. The conferences resulted in declarations by the powers confirmatory of the principles of the holy alliance, in a circular to that effect to all the minor courts of Europe, and in freeing France from the allied army, which had remained in that country for nearly three years.