Alexander, the name of three kings of Scotland. I. Succeeded his brother Edgar, Jan. 8, 1107, and died April 27, 1121. He was a prince of singular energy and capacity, which stood him in good stead during the rebellions that disturbed his reign, all of which he suppressed. He secured the independence of the Scottish hierarchy, opposed the pretensions of the English bishops, and cultivated letters.

II. Succeeded his father, William the Lion, Dec. 4, 1214, and died July 8, 1240. He stands conspicuous among Scottish kings for administrative ability and equity. He united with the league of English barons against King John, and was consequently for two years under excommunication. On the accession of Henry III., Alexander ratified a peace with England by marrying Henry's sister, after whose death without issue Henry invaded Scotland; but the Scottish barons rallied in such force to the support of their king that the war was concluded without a battle.

III. Son of the preceding by his second wife, a French lady, succeeded his father at the age of 8, married the daughter of Henry III. at the age of 10, and died March 16, 1286. He defeated the attempts of Henry to obtain a controlling influence in Scottish affairs, repelled an invasion of Haco, king of Norway (1263), securing as a consequence the allegiance of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man, and brought about a marriage between his daughter Margaret and the Norwegian king Eric (1282). Margaret died the next year, leaving a daughter Margaret, called the Maiden of Norway, whose death on the way to take possession of her throne was the cause of great misfortunes to Scotland.