The southernmost province of Portugal, bounded by Alemtejo, Spain, and the Atlantic; area, 1,872 sq. m.; pop. in 1868, 177,-342. It is watered by several small rivers and by the Guadiana, which divides it from Spain. A considerable mountain range in the north forms a watershed between it and Alemtejo. The S. W. part of the province is mountainous and rocky, and of wild and dreary aspect. The plains and valleys produce fruits in abundance, among them dates, figs, almonds, and oranges, which, with wines and fish, form the chief exports. The principal towns are Faro, the capital, Tavira, and Lagos, all on the S. coast, which ends in Cape St. Vincent, the S. W. extremity of Europe. - Algarve originally extended over much of S. Spain, and also included a portion of N. W. Africa, where the name is still retained by a province of Morocco (El Gharbie, the western land). It constituted a Moorish kingdom till the 13th century, when it was gradually conquered, and the part W. of the Guadiana finally annexed to Portugal as Algarve d'aquem Mar (this side the sea) in 1253. The African portion was conquered by Alfonso V. and formed into the province of Algarve d'alem Mar (beyond the sea) in 1471; and his successors are still called kings of Portugal and the Algarves.