Ali Bey, a Caucasian slave, who, by the favor of his master, Ibrahim Bey, rose to wealth and importance in Egypt, and became one of the Mameluke beys, born in 1728, died in 1773. He became chief of the Mamelukes in 1763, and, having secured himself adherents in Cairo, he slaughtered the other beys in 1766, and assumed the government, proclaiming himself sultan in 1768. The Porte, then occupied with war against Russia, left him uncontrolled. His idea, derived from intercourse with Europeans, was the restoration of the Egyptian kingdom. He formed an alliance with Daher, pasha of Acre, and they seized on Mecca, and sent a fleet into the Red sea. In 1770 they overran Syria, and Daher and Mohammed, Ali's general and adopted son, having routed the Turkish army, were on the point of rendering themselves masters of the country, when Mohammed, either alarmed for himself or gained over by the Turks, precipitately quitted the army, and, returning to Egypt, engaged in a war against Ali, who fled. The latter, however, renewed the contest jointly with Daher, and for a time with great success, but was finally captured in battle and slain.