I. The northernmost province of Brazil, bounded N. by Guiana and Venezuela, N. W. by Colombia, W. by Ecuador and Peru, S. by Peru, Bolivia, and the Brazilian province of Matto Grosso, and E. by the province of Para. Its limits have not been precisely defined; pop. about 80,000. The surface is covered by virgin forests, and but little known. In this province, at and near the town of Manaos, the river system of South America unites. The principal streams are the Amazon (which above Manaos is called the Solimoens), Negro, Putumayo, and Madeira.
II. A N. department of Peru, bounded N. by Ecuador; area, about 18,000 sq. m.; pop. 44,000, besides about 60,000 Indians of nomadic tribes. It is traversed by the Andes. The soil, which is watered by the Maranon and several of its affluents, is extremely fertile, and produces wheat, corn, rice, all sorts of fruits and vegetables, sugar cane, tobacco, cacao, coffee, cotton, indigo, quinine, and sarsaparilla in abundance. Its virgin forests are rich in mahogany, cedar, and other valuable timber. The chief industries are the manufacture of sugar, rum, cottons, and woollens, and the salting of fish. Capital, Chachapoyas.