From the first settlement of America, the vine attracted the attention of the colonists, and as early as 1565 wine was made from native grapes in Florida. The first vineyard in the British colonies was planted by the London company in Virginia in 1020, and in 1630 French vine-dressers were imported by them; but the enterprise failed. Wine was made in Virginia in 1647, and in 1051 premiums were offered for its production. Beverly mentions that prior to 1722 there were vineyards in that colony, producing 750 gallons per year. In 1664 governor Richard Nicolls of New York granted to Paul Richards the privilege of making and selling wine free of duty, as the first who entered upon its cultivation on a large scale. Beauchamp Plantagenet, in a description of New Albion in 1648, states that the English settlers in Uvedale, now Delaware, had vines running on mulberry and sassafras trees. He names four kinds of grapes: Toulouse muscat, sweet-scented, great fox, and thick grape. The first two, after five months, being boiled and salted and well fined, made a strong red sherry; the third, a light claret; the fourth, a white grape, which crept on the ground, made a pure, gold-colored wine.

Tennis Pale, a Frenchman, made out of these four eight sorts of excellent wine; and his muscat after four months would intoxicate a man with the second draught. In 1683 William Penn tried to establish a vineyard near Philadelphia, but without success. A few years later, however, Mr. Tasker of Maryland, and Mr. Antill of Shrewsbury, N. J., seem to have succeeded somewhat better. In 1796 the French settlers in Illinois made 110 hogsheads of strong wine from native grapes. At Harmony, near Pittsburgh, a vineyard of 10 acres was planted by-Frederick Rapp and his associates from Germany, and they continued to cultivate grapes and silk at their new colony of Harmony in Indiana. In 1700 a Swiss colony was founded in Jessamine county, Ky., to establish a vineyard, but failed, as they planted only foreign grapes. They removed to Vevay, Switzerland county, Ind., in 1801, there planted native vines, especially the Cape or Schuylkill muscatel, and had more success. After 40 years' experience, however, they seem to have become discouraged. - The wines and wine grapes of America may be divided into wines of the At-lantic coast and wines of the Pacific coast. They are so entirely distinct that they can hardly be compared.

The wines of the first division resemble more those of Germany and France, containing more acid, more sprightli-ness, flavor, and bouquet; while the wines of the Pacific coast, especially California, contain but little acid, a good deal of spirit, and little flavor or bouquet, thus more nearly resembling the wines of Spain and southern Europe. The cause for this may be sought partly in the soil, but mostly in climatic influences. It is well known to wine makers that the grape must contain a certain amount of acid to develop bouquet during fermentation of the must and its transformation into wine; while the heat of the southern climate develops the largest amount of sugar in the fruit, the acids diminish. I. Wines of the Atlantic Coast. These may be divided into three distinct classes: 1, white or light-colored wines; 2, red or dark-colored wines; 3, wines resembling sherry. 1. White Wines. The Catawba grape was first introduced by Major Adlum of Georgetown, D. C, having been found by him in Maryland. It was first planted on an extensive scale by Nicholas Longworth, who may be called one of the founders of American grape culture. He leased parcels of unimproved land near Cincinnati to German settlers to plant with vines for one half the proceeds.

In 1858 the whole number of acres planted in vines around that city, mostly Catawba, was estimated at 1,200, of which Mr. Longworth owned 120. The principal pioneers in the business there, and extensive wine makers, are Messrs. Werk, Buchanan, Mottier, Bogen, Rehfuss, and Thompson, all owners of large vineyards and extensive manufacturers of still and sparkling wines. At Hermann, Mo., the Catawba was introduced in 1846, and bore its first fruit in 1847, when excellent wine was made from it on a small scale. Shortly afterward it was also introduced into Illinois. In 1860 the Pleasant Valley wine company was formed at Ham-mondsport, Steuben county, N. Y., which also cultivates it largely. But it is more extensively cultivated on the shores of Lake Erie than anywhere else, where the soil on Kellv's Island and Put-in-Bay, and around Cleveland and Sandusky, seems to be well adapted to it. It makes a light-colored wine, sprightly and aromatic, which is perhaps better known and has been longer appreciated than any other wine in the country.

It varies very much with the different locations, the wine of New York, northern Ohio, and northern Illinois containing less spirit, but a high flavor and a good deal of acid, while the wines of Missouri and further south are smoother, heavier, and less acid and astringent. Although the vine is very uncertain in its product, being much subject to disease, there is more Catawba wine consumed now than perhaps all other varieties together, both still and sparkling. It makes an excellent sparkling wine, which many connoisseurs prefer to the imported; and as a still wine it resembles the light Rhine and Moselle wines of Germany, though of course with a peculiar characteristic flavor. Average specific gravity of must, 80° Oechsli; acid, 5 per M. The Isabella is a native of South Carolina, and was first introduced in the north and brought to the notice of cultivators by Mrs. Isabella Gibbs. It has been nearly superseded by- better sorts. Its wine is pale pink, light and somewhat flat, hardly ever met with now except as sparkling, for which it is well adapted, though in every respect inferior to Catawba. Sp. gr. of must, 65°; acid, 6. The Cassady originated in Philadelphia, in Mr. Cassady's dooryard.

Wine fine straw color, good body and fine flavor, strongly resembling the wines of the Palatinate. It is not much cultivated. Sp. gr. of must, 90°; acid, 4. The Diana is a seedling of the Catawba, raised by Mrs. Diana Crehore, Boston. Its wine is seldom met with alone, as its flavor is too strong, and the must is mixed with other grapes. It has little value as a wine grape. The wine is pale straw color, less sprightly than Catawba, with strong foxy flavor. Sp. gr. 80°; acid, 4. The Goethe, Rogers's hybrid No. 1, originated by Mr. Rogers of Salem, Mass., is a hybrid between labrusca and vinifera. The wine is very pale, almost white, of a delicate muscatel flavor, sprightly and ethereal; a very fine light still wine, surpassing Catawba, and no doubt well adapted for sparkling wine, though of too recent origin to have had a fair trial. Sp. gr. of must, 80°; acid, 4. It is extensively raised at the west as a wine grape. The Lindley, Rogers's No. 9, is of the same origin as the last. The wine is somewhat heavier and stronger flavored, resembling Catawba in color and taste. It promises well. Sp. gr. 90°; acid, 5. The Massasoit, Rogers's No. 3, of the same origin. Wine straw color, fine flavor and body, superior to Catawba in every respect.