Andalusia (Span. Andalucia, originally Vandalusia, from the Vandals who settled there in the 5th century; in antiquity, BAetica), the most southern grand division of Spain, lying between lat. 86° and 38° 40' N., and lon. 1° 30' and 7° 30' W.; area, 27,153 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 3,200,944. It is bounded N. by Estre-madura and New Castile, E. by Murcia, W. by Portugal, S. W. by the Atlantic, and S. and S. E. by the straits of Gibraltar and the Mediterranean. Its chief river is the Guadalquivir, its mountain ranges the Sierra Nevada in the south and Sierra Morena in the north.
Mulhacen, a peak of the former, is 11,678 feet high. The climate is mild, the soil generally fertile, and the country level where not mountainous. The vegetation partakes both of the European and African character. In the south cotton and sugar cane are cultivated. These, with grain, olives, wines, figs, silk, cochineal, wool, and a fine breed of horses, are its chief products. Gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, antimony, sulphur, coal, mercury, vitriol, serpentine marble, and alabaster are found. The mines, rich in antiquity, are now much neglected. The country is parcelled out into vast estates, belonging to the crown, the clergy, and large landed proprietors. Agriculture is in a very backward state. A large part of the plains is devoted to pasturage. The manufactures, once important, have greatly declined; the principal are those of woollens, silk, and leather. The chief cities are Seville, the seat of the captain general, Cadiz, Cordova, Granada, Jaen, Malaga, Almeria, and Huelva, each the capital of a province named after it. The chief ports are Cadiz and Gibraltar. The Andalu-sians are a mixed race, descended from Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Goths, Vandals, and Moors, all of which nations are conspicuous in the checkered history of the country.
Physically they retain many of the peculiarities of the last-named people. They are animated and naturally intelligent. Trajan, the Senecas, and Lucan were natives of Andalusia. In the middle ages it was the flourishing home of Moslem and Jewish learning; in modern times it has given Spain some of its most illustrious statesmen, painters, and authors.