Andover, a town of Essex county, Mass., on the Merrimack and Shawsheen rivers, 21 m. N. of Boston; pop. in 1870, 4,873. The village is pleasantly situated in an elevated and healthy district, and has railroad connection with Boston, Lawrence, Lowell, Salem, and Newbury-p'ort. The chief importance of the town is derived from its literary institutions. It is the seat of Phillips academy, founded in 1780 by the munificence of John and Samuel Phillips, who were sons of a clergyman of Andover and graduates of Harvard college. The former was prominent in the politics of New Hampshire, and the latter was lieutenant governor of Massachusetts. Its funds are large, and it has a complete chemical and philosophical apparatus, and libraries containing 2,500 volumes. There are 8 instructors, and 154 students in the classical and 74 in the English department. The Andover theological seminary, an offshoot of Phillips academy and under the same trustees, was founded in 1807, with the object of "providing for the church a learned, orthodox, and pious ministry." Its early donors were Samuel Abbot, a merchant of Boston, Moses Brown and William Bartlett, merchants of Newbury-port, and John and Phoebe Phillips of Andover. The whole amount it has received is not less than $400,000. It is under the control of the Congregationalists, but is open to Protestants of all denominations.
It has 5 professors, generally more than 100 students, and a library of 30,000 volumes. In 1870 the number of graduates was 1,618. Its course of studies occupies three years. Tuition and room rent are free to all, and additional aid is given to a portion of the students. The " Bibliotheca Sacra," a leading organ of New England theology, edited by the professors, is published as a quarterly at Andover. The Abbot female academy, established here in 1829, is a flourishing institution, designed especially for the education of female teachers. The buildings of these institutions are of brick, and stand near together on an eminence commanding a fine prospect. There are generally from 400 to 500 students in all the institutions. Andover contains also a bank and 8 churches, 5 of which are Congregational, 1 Episcopal, 1 Methodist, and 1 Baptist. In 1865 there were 4 factories for the manufacture of tow and flax, employing 100 males and 150 females; 5 woollen mills, with 24 sets of machinery, employing 212 males and 188 females; a file factory with 350 hands; and an establishment for the manufacture of steel, employing 100 hands.