Angouleme (anc. Inculisma, or Civitas Eco-lisamensium), a town of France, capital of the department of Charente and of the ancient province of Angoumois, situated on the Charente, 66 m. N. E. of Bordeaux, on the railway connecting that city with Paris; pop. in 1866, 25,116. It is built on an isolated hill, rising about 200 feet above the river; and though the streets are narrow and crooked, it presents with its white stone houses a neat and cheerful aspect. In the centre of the town is the old ruined castle, the birthplace of Marguerite of Navarre, and remains of the ancient fortifications are also extant. A noble cathedral of the 12th century, the church of St. Andre dating from the 11th, and a Benedictine abbey of the time of Charlemagne, are among its other antiquities. It has a college, a museum of natural history, manufactures of paper, woollens, linen, earthenware, and cognac, a cannon foundery, and a thriving trade with Bordeaux and the southern departments. It was for some years the seat of a naval school, transferred to Brest in 1830. -From the 9th century Angouleme, with its territory of Angoumois, to which Perigord was at first united, was governed by counts.
In 1360 it was ceded to the English, who were driven out in the reign of King Charles V. It afterward belonged to the crown, was erected into a duchy by Francis I., and formed a royal apanage till 1(550, since which the title of duke of Angouleme has been only nominal.