I. The Cyclops (so called from having lost an eye in battle), a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great, and subsequently king of Asia, slain at the battle of Ipsus in Phrygia in 301 B. C. At the dis-tribution of Alexander's empire, Antigonus received as his share the greater Phrygia, Lycia, and Pamphylia. Attacked by Per-diccas, he took refuge at the court of Antip-ater, regent of Macedonia and Greece. On the death of Perdiccas in Egypt (321), An-tipater made a new distribution of the Asiatic provinces. Antigonus had Susiana added to his former dominions, and to him was committed the charge of annihilating Eumenes, the ally of Perdiccas. By bribing one of his officers, Antigonus gained a victory over Eumenes and shut him up in the fortress of Nora in Cappadocia, In the mean time Antipater died (319), and Antigonus in his turn began to aspire to that universal dominion at which Perdiccas had aimed. First destroying Eumenes (316), he occupied Susa, the Persian capital, and wrested Babylonia from Seleucus. A coalition was now formed against him by Seleu-cus, Ptolemy of Egypt, Lysimachus of Thrace, and Cassander, the son of Antipater; but Antigonus. with the aid of Aristodemus of Miletus, succeeded in combining many of the Hel-lenic cities in his support, and, though Seleucus recovered Babylonia, the Macedonian garrisons were expelled from the Peloponnesus, Eubœa, Thebes, and the greater part of Phocis and Locris. After a truce of one year, during which Cassander murdered Roxana and the young Alexander (311), the war broke out again.
The restored Athenian democracy paid to Antigonus and his son Demetrius Poliorcetes extravagant honors. Having defeated Ptolemy in a sea fight off Salamis in Cyprus (300), Antigonus threw off the pretence hitherto kept up by the generals of Alexander that they were holding merely for his heirs, and assumed the title of king. Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Seleucus immediately called themselves kings also. Cassander, general of Macedonia, held hack a little longer, but soon followed. Cassander, driven out of Greece by Demetrius (303), now formed a league against Antigonus with Seleucus and Ptolemy. In August, 301, the armies met at Ipsus. Antigonus and his son had upward of 70,000 foot, 10,000 horse, and 75 elephants; the coalition had 64,000 foot, 10,500 horse, 400 elephants, and 120 armed chariots. Demetrius defeated Antio-chus, the son of Seleucus, but pressed him too far in pursuit, so that Seleucus cut him off. The Thracian archers of Lysimachus broke the centre, where Antigonus, now at the age of 81, was commanding.
He would not flee, saying Demetrius would come and help him, and died on the field of battle, leaving the victory to those who represented the principle of a balance of power in the world.
II. Antigonus Go-natts, king of Macedonia, grandson of the preceding, and son of Demetrius Poliorcetes, born in 319 B. C, died about 240. He is supposed to have received his surname from his native village of Gona or Gonni in Thessaly. When his father was captive in the hands of Seleucus, king of Babylon, Gonatas offered to take his place. The affairs of Macedonia having fallen into confusion after the invasion of the Gauls, Ptolemy Ceraunus having been slain by them, and Sosthenes having died, Antigonus entered Macedonia with a small force, drove out the Gauls, and was accepted by the Macedonians as their king, 277 B. C. But Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, expelled him in 273, and he fled to the Peloponnesus. On the death of Pyrrhus shortly afterward he recovered Macedonia, was again expelled by Alexander, son of Pyrrhus. and again reinstated by his own son Demetrius. Nearly all that is known of his subsequent reign is his attempt to prevent the formation of the Achaean league, He was succeeded by his son Demetrius II.
III. Antigonus Doson, king of Macedonia, born in 280 B. C, died in 220. His surname was given him to signify that he was always promising gifts which he never gave. He was an illegitimate grandson of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and in 220 was named guardian of Philip, the young son of Demetrius II., whose widow he married. The Macedonian nation preferred his rule on account of his military talents, and chose him to be their king. He was successful in his wars for the suppression of the Dardanian, Thessalian, and Mœsian revolts. In the affairs of the Peloponnesus he took the part of Aratus and the Achaean league against Cleomenes and the Spartans. He defeated Cleomenes decisively at Sellasia in 221, and took the city of Sparta, but was recalled by a revolt of the Illyrians, whom he defeated. He was succeeded by his ward Philip V.
IV. King of the Jews, and the last of the Asmo-neans, born in 80 B. C, died in 35. He was the son of Aristobulus II., and was made prisoner and sent to Rome by Pompey. He escaped, headed a revolt in Judea, and was taken a second time by Gabinus, who sent him again to Rome. Julius CAesar permitted him to return. He was placed on the throne of Judea by the Parthians in 40 B. C, and was besieged in Jerusalem by Herod and Sosius, a lieutenant of Mark Antony. He was taken, sent to Antony, scourged, and put to death.