Antisthenes, an Athenian philosopher, the founder of the sect of the Cynics, flourished about 380 B. C. He was a pupil of Gor-gias, and afterward one of the most faithful disciples of Socrates, remaining with him through all his sufferings, and being present at his death. He began to teach his new doctrines in the Cynosarges, a gymnasium near the temple of Hercules, set apart for the instruction of the sons of Athenians by foreign wives; Antisthenes himself 'was the son of an Athenian citizen and a Thracian (or according to some authorities a Phrygian) woman. From this gymnasium the followers who soon surrounded him probably took their name of Cynics. He taught that the highest virtue consisted in self-denial, independence of outward forms, social usages, and the comforts and luxuries of civilization, and in despising riches, honors, and human knowledge. His principal disciple was Diogenes. His works, of which only trifling fragments remain, were of a polemic character, bitterly assailing many of his contemporaries.