Of ornamental blossoming apple trees, the common crab and the double-flowered Siberian crab, both red and white, are much cultivated. - The wood of the apple tree in its wild state is tine-grained, hard, and of a light brown color; and, in exception to the general rule, the cultivated wood is of a still finer and closer grain, weighing in the proportion of about 66 to 45 of the wild wood. In a green state the wood weighs from 48 to 66 lbs. per cubic foot, and it loses in drying about a tenth of its weight and from an eighth to a twelfth of its bulk. It is much used by turners and for the manufacture of shoe lasts, cogs for wheels, and some kinds of furniture; stained black and polished, it passes for ebony; and the wood of the roots is cut into thin sheets or veneers for interior decorations. - The apple as an article of food is probably unsurpassed except by the banana for its agreeable and nutritive properties. Unlike most tropical fruits, it requires no training to become acceptable to the palate, and, whether baked, boiled, made into jellies, or preserved with cider in the Shaker apple sauce or apple butter, is popular every where.

The exportation of New England ice was accompanied by the exportation of New England apples, which are better suited for this purpose than western ones; and at the ice ports of China and India American apples are to be purchased in as line a condition as in our own markets. American apples always command a good price in England. Every farmer cuts and dries a supply of apples for use in the late spring and early summer, and immense quantities of apples are pared and cut by machinery, and slowly dried in ovens or in the sun, furnishing an important article of trade. The flavor is much injured by long exposure to the sun. When properly prepared, dried apples will remain good for live or six years if kept in a dry place; and for use it is only necessary to soak them in water a short time previous to boiling. Crab apples make the best jelly, and are also much used for a sweet pickle. The raisine compose of the French is made by boiling apples in must or new wine. By mixing the juice with water and sugar a light fruit wine is obtained. Cider in the United States has never acquired much celebrity from the care of its manufacture, as it has usually been made from the refuse of the orchard. That made from wild apples or seedlings is much the best.

In England, in the counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire, and Devonshire, much cider is made of superior quality. (See Cider.) To these uses of the apple it may be added that a mixture of apple pulp and lard was the original pomatum. - The orchard products of the United States (mostly apples) are stated in the census returns for 1870 to be worth $47,335,189. More than a million acres are under cultivation as orchards, but many more acres of hilly land might be used profitably for this purpose, where no other fruit would grow well. In New England the crop is apt to be irregular, and some years the abundance is so great that the fruit will not pay for picking and sending to market, and is used for cider or to feed swine. The apple tree is not subject to disease, and years ago the fruit was perfectly fair and uninjured by worm or caterpillar in New England, as still in Oregon and the West; but now the borer (saperda bixitta-ta) attacks the stem, perforating it a little above the ground; the woolly aphis attacks the tender shoots; the caterpillar (clisiocampa Americana) builds its cobweb nests and devours the leaves; the canker-worm (anisopteryx vernata) also devours all foliage; the apple moth (carpocapsa pometaria) lays its egg at the edge of the calyx, and the larva when hatched enters the fruit; and the bark louse (coccus) attacks the bark.

The borer may be destroyed, as well as the bark louse and aphis, by potash washes (1 1/2 lbs. of potash to 2 gallons of water), if applied when the egg is unhatched; but after the borer has entered the stem it may be killed by thrusting a wire into the hole. The apple moth is destroyed by feeding all the fallen apples to swine, thus preventing the larvae from entering the earth, where they undergo their transformations. The caterpillar comes from eggs laid in the fall on the smaller twigs, encircling them, and, as the whole community collects in the nest, may be burned by torches on poles thrust among the branches. The canker-worm is not so easily managed, from the vast number of its armies. As the females are wingless, they may be prevented from ascending the stem to lay their eggs, when they issue from the chrysalis in the ground at the base of the tree, by tar or any viscid substance that will entrap them, and by digging around the trees in the fall and exposing the pupae to the weather. - The varieties of apple suitable for growth in different parts of the United States have been made the subject of many experiments by the best pomologists; and the national pomological society, founded in 1850 by the late A. J. Downing and others, has published the results.

To these reports and to the publications of local societies cultivators are referred for the best kinds for orchards in their vicinity. For general cultivation, the Williams's favorite, a large red apple, the Porter, New-town pippin, early bough, red Astrakhan, and Gravenstein are recommended for fall use; while for winter the Baldwin, Rhode Island greening, Danvers winter-sweet, fameuse, Hub-bardston nonesuch, northern spy, Spitzenberg, minister, Vandevere, and Roxbury russet offer a variety both for cooking and dessert. Some of these, however, do not flourish in NewEngland; others do not bear well in the western states. For exportation the Baldwin, Rhode Island greening, Newtown pippin, Spitzenberg, and Swaar are most in demand. In the Boston market native apples command a higher price than western ones, although the latter are usually larger and fairer. Apples are commonly brought to market in barrels which weigh about 130 lbs.; and Pliny says that this was one of the two fruits known in his time that could be preserved in casks.

On the western coast, however, apples are always marketed in boxes somewhat .-mailer than standard orange boxes, holding about a bushel.

The Appian Way. (See p. 538.)

The Appian Way. (See p. 538.)