I. lector, a Russian grand admiral, born in 1671, died Nov. 10, 1728. He was one of the leading men of the reign of Peter the Great, and is especially remarkable as the creator of the Russian navy. During the war between Sweden and Russia he expelled the Swedes from Ingria, in 1710 conquered Viborg in Finland, and when war with Turkey broke out, in 1711, he commanded in the Black sea. In 1713 he attacked Finland from the sea, and devastated the shores of Sweden, destroying hundreds of villages, and many towns and iron works. He accompanied Peter in his warlike expedition against Persia, and served on the Caspian sea. He always enjoyed the entire confidence of Peter, though firmly opposed to his reforms, and more than once implicated in extensive malversations.

II. Stefan Fedorovitch, a relative of the preceding, died Aug. 31, 1758. When young he served in the army of Munnich against the Turks, rose rapidly, and. returning to the court of the empress Elizabeth, distinguished himself by his decided opposition to the policy of the king of Prussia and his diplomatic adherents, including Count Lestocq, the favorite of the empress. At the beginning of the seven years' war Apraxin, with the rank of field marshal, commanded an army against Frederick the Great. In May, 1757, he invaded Prussia, took Memel, advanced into the interior. destroying everything, and on Aug. 30 won the battle of Gross-Jagerndorf against the Prussian general Lehwald. Instead, however, of marching on Berlin, to which capital the road was open, Apraxin retreated to Courland, having, as it is pretended, received news of the sickness of the empress Elizabeth, and having conspired with the grand chancellor Bestusheff to raise to the throne her grandnephew Paul, over the head of his father, Peter III. After the empress recovered, Apraxin was tried by court martial, but died in prison before the trial ended.