The "Oriental Geography of Ibn Haukal," by Ouseley (London, 1800), is translated from a Persian version in which the works of Al-stakhri and Ibn Haukal have been recast and combined in one. Especially important are the geography of Edrisi (about 1150), who lived at the court of Roger II. of Sicily, and who visited England (French by Jaubert, Paris, 1836-'40; and the portion relating to Africa and Spain, Arabic and French, by Dozy and l)e Goeje, Leyden, 1806); the "Geographical Dictionary " of Yakut (died 1229), published by Wtistenfeld (Leipsic, 1866 et seq.); geography of Abulfeda (Arabic by Reinaud and De Slane, Paris, 1840; French by Reinaud, Paris, 1848). Ibn Batuta (died about 1377) surpassed all in the extent of his travels, which reached from Spain to China and into central Africa (Arabic and French by Defremery and Sanguinetti, Paris, 1853-'9; English, abridged, by Lee, London, 1829) Abdallatif, a physician, wrote an account of Egypt, founded on his own observations, and of great value (De Sacy, Paris, 1810). He took advantage of a plague in Cairo in 1201-'2, of which he gives a graphic description, to make anatomical investigations.

The Arab geographers, instead of following in their descriptions political or physical divisions of the globe, generally adopted, after the example of the Greeks, the system of climates or zones, usually seven. In the determination of latitudes and longitudes, of the magnitude of the earth, and the shape of the continents, they made a somewhat nearer approach to the truth than the Greek geographers. Under the caliph Al-Mamoun (813-'33), a measurement was made of the length of a degree of latitude. - Such is the extent of Arabic literature that, notwithstanding the labors of European scholars and the production of native presses, especially at Boulak, Cairo, and in India, and recently in England, where Rigk Allah Hassoun, an Arabic poet, has devoted himself to the production of standard works, the greater part even of what has been preserved is in manuscript, and still more has perished. In proof of the great number of works lost, we need not appeal to the exaggerated accounts of the libraries of some of the Mohammedan princes (Hakem II. of Spain is said to have collected 600,000 volumes). Works in literary history, always a favorite department with the Arabs, furnish abundant evidence.

The most important of these works are the Fihrist or "Catalogue of Sciences " of Ibn al-Nadim, of the 9th century (published by Flugel, vol. i., Leipsic, 1871); the "Biographical Dictionary'1 of Ibn Khallikan, of the 13th century (Arabic by Wtistenfeld, Gottingen, 1835-50; French by De Slane, Paris, 1842--'71); and Hadji Khalfa's (died 1635) "Dictionary of Arabic, Persian, and Turkish Literature " (Arabic and Latin by Flugel, 7 vols. 4to, Leipsic, 1835-58). Hammer-Purgstalls "Literary History of the Arabs (7 vols. 4to, Vienna, 1850-'56), which comes down only to the year 1258, contains notices of about 10,000 writers.

Of the printed books a tolerably complete index is contained in Zenker's Bibliotheca Orientals (Leipsic, 1846-'60).