Archangel (Russ. Arkhangelsk). I. The northernmost government of European Russia, bounded X. by the White and Polar seas, E. by the Ural mountains, and S. and W. by Vologda, Olonetz, and Finland. It includes the islands of Nova Zembla, Vaygatch, Dolgoi, and Kol-guyev, and has a continental area of about 290,000 sq. m., and an estimated total area of about 340,000 sq. m.; pop. in 1867, 275,779. It is watered by the Petchora, Mezen, Dwina, and Onega, all of which flow north. Lapps, Finns, and Samoyeds, many of them still heathen, form the native population, living independently among the conquering Russian settlers. The country is covered with immense forests. The soil yields vegetables, oats, barley, hemp, and flax. The principal towns besides the capital are Kola, Kem, Onega, Pinega, and Mezen.

II. The capital of the preceding government, named after a monastery dedicated to the archangel Michael built there in 1584, situated on the river Dwina, 30 m. from its mouth in the White sea, 450 m. N. E. of St. Petersburg, in lat. 64° 32' N., Ion. 40° 33' E.; pop. in 1867, 20.178. It has a military and a civil governor, an archbishop, a high school or gymnasium, a navy yard, and several private ship yards. For nearly a century and a half, previous to the construction of St. Petersburg, Archangel was the principal and indeed the only mart of the Russian import and export trade. As early as the time of Queen Elizabeth English merchant ships occasionally entered the mouth of the Dwina, and they were soon followed by those of the Dutch and the German Hansa. The harbor is large and one of the best in northern Europe, though somewhat obstructed by a sand bank at the entrance. Archangel is still one of the principal points for the trade with the interior of Russia and with Siberia, the Dwina being connected by canals with the Volga, and thus with Moscow and Astrakhan. The ice disappears in April, and the navigation closes in September. The principal objects of trade are fish, fish oil, tallow, linseed, furs, hides, lumber, wax, iron, linen, bristles, and caviare.

In 1855 the harbor of Archangel, defended by a fort, resisted the English attacks. Archangel, being able to receive the largest men-of-war, soon afterward became one of the chief places for the construction and maintenance of the Russian navy. The buildings of the admiralty or navy board, as well as the barracks for sailors, are situated on the island of Solom-balsk. In summer Archangel sends out numerous fishing boats, and in winter hunters to the utmost northern regions, such as Spitz-bergen. Nova Zembla, and the mouth of the Lena in Siberia. A special company has been formed in Archangel for the herring fishery. In 1868 the exports to Great Britain, consisting chiefly of linen goods (305,890 pieces) and oats (8.728,244 bushels), were valued at £960,938, and the total exports at £1,504,211.