I. Surnamed Physicus, or the Naturalist, a Greek philosopher, supposed by some to have been a native of Athens, by others of Miletus. He flourished about the middle of the 5th century B. C, and was a pupil of Anaxagoras. Archelaus is said to have been the first philosopher who taught physics in combination with ethics, at least in Greece. He held that the antagonism of heat and cold caused the separation of fire and water, and produced a slimy mass of earth; that the action of heat upon the moisture of this mixture generated animals, originally nourished by their native mud, and gradually becoming capable of propagating their species; that these animals were all endowed in different degrees with intellect; and that man, separating in time from his brother animals, rose to his superior condition. He held also the doctrine that "right and wrong are not from nature, but from custom." After the banishment of Anaxagoras from Athens, Archelaus established himself in that city, and is said to have instructed Euripides and Socrates.
II. A king of Macedon, from 413 to 399 B. 0. He was, according to Plato, an illegitimate son of Per-diccas II., and a monster of cruelty. If we may believe Thucydides, however, Archelaus, by erecting fortresses, forming roads, and adding to his military strength, established the basis on which Philip and Alexander raised the superstructure of Macedonian power. He instituted public games at Aegae, or at Dium, which he dedicated to the muses and Zeus. He was a lover of literature, science, and the fine arts. His palace was adorned with paintings by the greatest Grecian masters, and was the resort of Euripides, Agathon, and other distinguished men. Archelaus is said to have been slain at a hunting party by his favorite Craterus, but whether accidentally or deliberately is not known.
III. The greatest of the generals of Mithridates the Great of Pontus, born in Cap-padocia. He commanded the army which his master sent against Nicomedes, king of Bithy-nia, whom he encountered in Paphlagonia, and completely defeated. On the outbreak of the terrible struggle known in Roman history as the first Mithridatic war, he was sent with a naval and military force into Greece. He subdued many of the Aegean islands and compelled the Athenians to take part against the Romans; but when Sylla became his opponent his triumphant career terminated. At Chaero-nea and Orehomenus, in Bœotia, his Asiatic myriads were overthrown and almost annihilated (86 B. C.), and he was himself driven to flight and concealment. Mithridates now commissioned Archelaus to negotiate with his conqueror. The two generals met at Delium, where Sylla is said to have vainly endeavored to induce Archelaus to betray his sovereign. Afterward a preliminary treaty was concluded, which was not approved by Mithridates; but Sylla by the advice of Archelaus had an interview with the king at Dardanus (84), and there made with him a treaty so favorable to the Romans, that henceforward Archelaus, the principal mediator in the matter, was regarded as a traitor, and had ultimately to take refuge with his former antagonists from the vengeance of his king.
IV. Son of the preceding, was made by Pompey in 63 B. C. priest of the goddess of war at Comana in Cappadocia. This office conferred on him the power of king over Comana and its territory. When Berenice, queen of Egypt, proclaimed that she was desirous of marrying a prince of royal blood, he pretended to be the son of Mithridates, won her hand, and presently found himself king of Egypt. Gabinius, the proconsul of Syria, having espoused the cause of Ptolemy, marched an army into Egypt, where a battle was fought in which Archelaus lost his crown and his life after a reign of six months.
V. Son of the preceding, succeeded to the office of his father at Comana. In 51 B. C, having aided the insurgents in Cappadocia, he was expelled from his dominions by Cicero, then proconsul of Cilicia. After the Alexandrian war he was deprived of his office by Julius CAesar, who gave it to one of his own adherents.
VI. Son of the preceding, was made king of Cappadocia by Mark Antony, in 36 B. C. Augustus confirmed him in the possession of his kingdom, and even added to it a portion of Cilicia and Lesser Armenia, Archelaus was once accused at Rome by his own subjects, but he had Tiberius for an advocate on the occasion, and was acquitted. But afterward, while sojourning in Rome, Archelaus was so impolitic as to offend Tiberius, and when the latter became emperor he invited the king to visit Rome once more, and, as soon as he came, had him accused before the senate of meditating treason. His old age saved his life, but he was compelled to remain in Rome, where he died soon after (A. D. 17). On his death Cappadocia was converted into a Roman province.
VII. A son of Herod the Great, was proclaimed king by the army on the death of his father (4 B. C.). Shortly after his accession a sedition broke out, in the suppression of which he manifested the cruelty of his nature. He then went to Rome to solicit from the emperor the confirmation of his title, which was disputed by his brother Antipas. Dividing the kingdom between them, Augustus gave Archelaus the sovereignty of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea, with the title of ethnarch. On his return from Rome he transgressed the Mosaic law by taking to wife Glaphyra, the not childless widow of his brother Alexander. In the 10th year of his reign he was accused by the Jews before Augustus of various crimes, and being found guilty, was deprived of his dominions, and banished to Gaul (A. D. 8), where he died.
VIII. A sculptor, a native of Priene, and the son of Apollonius. He is supposed to have lived in the reign of Claudius. He made the marble bass-relief representing the apotheosis of Homer. This work is now in the British museum.