I. A S. department of Peru, bounded S. W. by the Pacific; area, about 45,000 sq.'m.; pop. about 200,000. It is divided into the provinces of Arequipa, Islay, Castella, Camana, Union, Condesuyos, and Cailloma. The eastern section is a high table land belonging to the Andes region; the rest lies between the main range of the Andes and the Pacific. The mountains are for the most part covered with perpetual snow, from which rises the volcano of Misti or Arequipa to a height of about 20,000 ft. The western section is very fertile, and is watered by the Ocona, Camana, and other rivers, all of which flow to the Pacific. By reason of the diversity of elevation, almost every known. vegetable product of the earth is raised. Oil, wine, and brandy of good quality are made, and the fruits of the department have earned for it the title of the garden of Peru. The western portion is covered with cattle, sheep, and goats, while the mountains and plateaux abound with llamas, alpacas, gua-nacos, vicunas, and other wool-bearing quadrupeds. Silver, copper, tin, lead, sulphur, rock crystal, and coal are found.
Earthquakes are very frequent and disastrous, and are invariably accompanied by eruptions of the volcanoes of Misti, Ornate, Tutupaca, and Ubinas.
II. A town, capital of the preceding department, situated 7,850 feet above the sea, on the river Chili, 40 m. from the coast, in lat. 16° 30' S., lon. 72° 20' W., 480 m. S. W. of Lima, in the midst of a fertile district and near several gold and silver mines; pop. about 35,000. It was one of the best built towns in South America, having'a cathedral and several other churches, 9 convents, a college, a hospital, and houses of stone solidly constructed and vaulted: but it was almost wholly destroyed by the earthquake of Aug. 13-15, 1868, in which nearly every house was levelled with the ground and 6OO persons were killed. A similar disaster had happened to the city on four previous occasions. Its ancient site was two leagues E. of the present one; the removal was made after Arequipa had been nearly buried in ashes from the volcano of Misti in the 10th century.
Volcano of Misti or Arequipa.