Christoph Friedrich Von Ammon, a German Protestant theologian and pulpit orator, born in Baireuth, Jan. 16, 1766, died in Dresden, May 21, 1850. He studied theology in Erlan-gen, in 1789 became professor of philosophy, and in 1792 professor of theology and preacher at that university. From 1794 to 1804 he was professor of the same branches in Gottingen, then until 1813 again in Erlangen, and from that time until his death Protestant court preacher, vice president of the consistory, and afterward member of the ministry of worship in Dresden. In 1825 he accepted the old title of nobility, which his family had lost in 1640, together with their feudal estates, on account of their fidelity to Protestantism, and which the king of Bavaria had in 1824 restored to them. Ammon was, together with Bretschneider, Pau-lus, Rohr, and other German theologians of minor mark, the father of what is known as German theological rationalism. In his principal work, "Development of Christianity into the Universal Religion " (Fortbildung des Christen-thums zur Weltreligion, 4 vols., Leipsic, 1833-'40), he holds that the Christian religion is perfectible not only in its external form as a church, but also in its substance and nature, and must be further developed if it is to embrace the whole of humanity.

He regards Jesus as a mere man, who attained the highest scope and elevation, and so became intimately united with God. Though he was among the first to introduce the Kantian philosophy into theology, and to lay a great stress on the use of reason in matters of revealed religion, he was no systematic and comprehensive thinker. Nice distinctions being at that time drawn among the rationalists between rational super-naturalism and supernatural rationalism, he called himself a follower of the latter school, according to which belief or faith begins where science ends, and revelation may make up for the deficiencies of reason. This position being too much exposed .to objections from the side both of believers and unbelievers, he was sometimes, as for instance by Schleiermacher in the dispute on "Harms's Theses," charged with duplicity; and his last great work, "The Life of Jesus" (2 vols., Leipsic, 1842-'4), was even ridiculed on account of its undecided position in regard to the later critical theories of Strauss, Bruno Bauer, Eeuerbach, and the Tubingen school.

Among his other writings we may mention particularly Handbuch der christlichen Sit-tenlehre (3 vols., Leipsic, 1823; 2d ed., 1838); Anleitung zur Kanzelberedsamkeit (3d ed., Erlangen, 1826), more naturalistic in the 1st and 3d, more supernaturalistic in the 2d edition; Entwurf ciner reinbiblischen Theologie (2d ed., 3 vols., Gottingen, 1801 - '2); Summa Theologiae Christianae (4th ed., Leipsic, 1830); and his last work, Die wahre und falsche Orthodoxie (Leipsic, 1849). He had the misfortune to see the theological system which he represented entirely deserted by the great mass of his contemporaries, either for infidelity or for thoroughgoing orthodoxy and pietism. His biography is entitled Ch. F. Ammon nach Leben, Ansich-ten und Wirken (Leipsic, 1850).