The admirable architectural forms brought in by these men continue in use in all civilized countries to this day, and have been carried wherever European civilization has extended. Their reign has not, however, been undisputed. The spirit of scientific inquiry which has characterized the last hundred years has not only enlarged our knowledge of architectural forms, but has promoted a more exhaustive study of the principles of the art. New movements have accordingly arisen, avowedly actuated by these researches, directed either to improving the so-called classical style, or to supplanting it altogether. These two movements are known as the Greek and the Gothic revival. Both took their origin in England. The Greek revival dates from 1762, when Messrs. Stuart and Revett published the results of their researches among the antiquities of Attica. The Gothic revival may be said to date from Horace Walpole's works at Strawberry Hill about 100 years ago, but its modern development did not begin till about 1820. In England and the United States the Greek revival was merely a reproduction of the Greek buildings or parts of buildings, which, however beautiful in their original position, proved in the more gloomy climate of the north, and when executed in coarser materials, uninteresting and unattractive.

The Greek originals, moreover, were almost exclusively temples, without windows, and surrounded by columns, a model utterly unsuited to modern uses. The attempted adoption of Greek details proved equally unsatisfactory. The movement made considerable mark in England, the British museum being perhaps its chief example. In this country the Greek style was adopted for the public buildings at Washington and for post offices, custom houses, hotels, and banks, in marble or granite, in all our principal cities. This fashion, for government buildings at least, has not yet passed away! Imitations of these works in wood were very common in the first half of this century, as may everywhere be witnessed in country towns; and a certain style of church with Greek details and a tower imitated from the choragic monument or the temple of the Winds is still common. In joinery, the Greek forms of mouldings both here and in England have become almost universal. In other countries the excitement caused by the discovery of Greek art was less superficial, and proved a more efficient inspiration.

In Scotland, where the architecture has always exhibited much independence and local character, the "Greek" style, in the hands of Mr. Hamilton and the Adams brothers, shows great freedom of treatment and refinement of taste. More recently, in the hands of Mr. Thomson, at Glasgow, it has developed, with great elegance and beauty, forms perfectly adapted to modern uses. A similar effort was made in Germany, chiefly in Berlin and Munich, to reconcile the methods of the Greeks with modern needs; and in spite of a general effect of bareness and hardness, it is impossible to deny to the best works of Schinkel and Klenze a good measure of admiration. It was only in France, however, in an atmosphere at once thoroughly artistic and highly intellectual, that the Greek revival showed enough vigor to throw aside the methods of the ancients and to create new forms. The pedantic fashions of the first empire, which however hardly extended their influence in architecture beyond the schools, gave place in the reign of Louis Philippe to a new style, which has been called the neo-grecquc, or, to distinguish it from the Romanesque, founded upon Roman methods, the romantique, though it has little in common with the contemporary romantic school in literature.

The column of July, parts of the Palais de Justice, the Bibliotheque Ste. Genevieve, and the Palais des Beaux Arts, by MM. Due, Labrouste, and Duban, are the typical monuments of this style. Their erection marks a new era in architecture. Hardly a building of note has since been erected in France which has not been more or less affected by their example, and it has sensibly modi-tied the related forms in use in Germany. The influence of this style is also extending in the United States, mainly through the agency of the ecole des beaux arts of Paris, whose pupils or pupils' pupils are rapidly multiplying here. Meanwhile in England, the Greek movement having failed, surviving only long enough to kill the Roman classical style, the field was left open for the revival of the mediaeval architecture, which, fostered by ecclesiastical patronage and by archaeological studies, has during the last 50 years gradually engrossed nearly all the talent of the country. Beginning, as the Greek revival began, with a period of pedantry and purism, under the guidance of the elder and younger Pugin, and used at first chiefly for ecclesiastical buildings, the ascendancy of the Gothic style was finally established when in 1840 it was decided to adopt it for the new houses of parliament.

This great undertaking educated a large body of workmen in all the decorative arts of the middle ages, and gave an immense impulse to the Gothic movement. Subsequent works show not only greater knowledge and skill, but more freedom of mind, both in secular and ecclesiastical work. The works of Scott, Waterhouse, Street, Burges, and Butterfield exhibit this gradually increasing tendency. It may fairly be said that in the hands of these architects the "Victorian Gothic," as it has been called, differs as much from the various Gothic styles of the middle ages as they differ from each other. A similar movement has meanwhile been going on in France and Germany, but less successfully. In Germany, after long and not altogether happy efforts to revive round-arched or Lombardic styles, the proper pointed Gothic has been taken up, stimulated by the great works for the completion of the Cologne cathedral. The Votive church at Vienna is perhaps the most noteworthy example of this movement. In France a taste for mediaeval work has found its chief field in the restoration, often amounting to reconstruction and completion, of cathedrals and other monuments; a work which, in the hands among others of MM. Lassus and Viollet-Le-duc, has been performed with consummate knowledge and skill.

The new buildings in the pointed style seem, however, timid and ineffective, and it is in the Romanesque or round-arched Gothic that the French seem most at home. Its influence is seen not only in works avowedly mediaeval, but much of the new Greek work so called, especially that in which the arch is used, recalls these models. The adherents of the Gothic revival in this country are as numerous and devoted as those of the Greek revival. But there is less partisanship here, perhaps, than abroad, and it is more common for architects to practise in both ways at once. - See Fergussoms "History of Architecture," Durand's Parallele, Napoleon's Egypte, Stuart and Revett's "Attica," Leta-rouilly's "Rome," Viollet-le-Duc's Diction-naire, Eastlake's "Gothic Revival," and the works of Piranesi, Gailhabaud, Penrose, Pu-gin, Ruskin, Daly, etc.; also " The Builder," Revue generate d' architecture, etc.

VII Modern Architecture 100434Tuscan.

Tuscan.

VII Modern Architecture 100436Doric.

Doric.

VII Modern Architecture 100438Ionic.

Ionic.

VII Modern Architecture 100440Corinthian.

Corinthian.

VII Modern Architecture 100442Composite.

Composite.

Arch of Titus at Beneventum.

Arch of Titus at Beneventum.

Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens.

Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter Olympius at Athens.

Interior of the Golden Gateway at Jerusalem.

Interior of the Golden Gateway at Jerusalem.

Pillar in Church of St. John, Constantinople.

Pillar in Church of St. John, Constantinople.

North Transept Window, Lincoln Cathedral.

North Transept Window, Lincoln Cathedral.

Celtic Gothic Cloister, Kilconnel Abbey, Ireland.

Celtic Gothic Cloister, Kilconnel Abbey, Ireland.

Flying Buttress, Chapter House, Lincoln.

Flying Buttress, Chapter House, Lincoln.

Decorated Arch (Gothic), Dorchester, Oxfordshire,

Decorated Arch (Gothic), Dorchester, Oxfordshire.