Finds, a term recently applied by English archaeologists to deposits of objects connected with human life, and sometimes associated with human remains, but of prehistoric or unknown origin. The chief aim of scientific research in regard to them is to ascertain the historical relation and condition of the human beings which they represent. As the development of civilization is not a uniform process, the discovery of a few objects made and used by a prehistoric tribe is not a sufficient index to the exact place of that tribe in history. Within certain limits there is a real consistency in stages of civilization; but in the present state of prehistoric archaeology it is hardly possible to make a classification which would correctly represent the sequence of forms and materials. The antiquaries of Denmark, a country especially rich in relics, classified their finds according to some leading features that seemed to indicate a regular sequence. They concluded that there had been an age when men used only implements of stone and bone, and were ignorant of the use of metals; that an age had succeeded when the use of bronze was known, and probably that of gold; and that there was a third age, when iron had superseded other metals for weapons and utensils.
All the rinds were consequently classified according to these three ages. It proved, however, that such exact lines could not be maintained. Men did not immediately cease to use stone implements when bronze was introduced; and bronze continued to be employed after the use of iron was well known. Another mode of classification is followed in France, where the finds are generally arranged in the museums after the following order:
This classification, suggested by the archaeologist Lartet, best serves our purpose of making a rapid survey and furnishing a short description of the objects found in ancient habitations of both hemispheres. For the various theories in relation to these finds, as well as for the nature of the places where they have been discovered, see American Antiquities, Archaeology, Bone Caves, and Lake Dwellings. -Stone Age. Finds of objects classified as belonging to the first epoch of the stone age have been made principally in the caverns of Auri-gnac, in the hills of Fajoles, the Trou de la Fontaine, the cave of Sainte-Reine, the grotte des Fees at Arcy, the caves of Vergisson, Vallieres, La Chaise, Gorge d'Enfer, Moustier, Pey de l'Aze, of Perigord, and of the department of Ariege, in France; in Kent's cave, Brixham, Gower, Kirkdale, and Wells, in England; in the caves of Chiampo and Laglio near Lake Como, of Palermo, San Ciro, and Macagnone, in Italy and Sicily; in a few caves in Spain, Algeria, Egypt, and Syria; in caves near the lake of Sumidouro in Brazil; and especially in Belgium, as near Liege, at Engis, Engihoul, and Naulette. In these caverns, and sometimes also on the surface of the ground or buried in it, have been found large quantities of chipped flints, arrowheads, and various stone implements, to all of which archaeologists usually give the common name of hatchets.
The commonest of the worked flints is the almond-shaped type. These instruments are oval hatchets carefully chipped all over the surface so as to form a cutting edge. The Moustier type is a pointed flint wrought on one side, the other being entirely plain. The third type is that of knives; they are thin and narrow tongue-shaped flakes, with one of the ends chipped to a point, and were used as scrapers. Others were wrought so as to do service as augers. Near Amiens were discovered small globular bodies with a hole through the middle, which are believed to be fossil shells used for adornment. There are many articles in the deposits of the quaternary epoch whose intention or significance is not known. Some are believed to have been religious symbols and emblems of authority. The natural color of all the wrought flints that belong to the earliest epoch of man's existence is gray, from the brightest to the darkest tint; but argillaceous soils color them white, and ochreous gravels yellowish brown. The proof of their age is the patina, which is the established term for those which are white on one side and brown on the other, probably from having lain between two different beds.
To guard against fraud and to detect modern imitations of ancient stone implements, it is well to notice whether the flints are coated with branching crystallizations, called dendrites, of a dark brown, produced by the combined action of the oxides of iron and manganese generally contained in fossiliferous beds.-The finds which are assigned to the second division of the stone age, the epoch of the reindeer or of migrated existing animals, consist of flints which bear marks of more skilful workmanship, and implements in bone, ivory, and reindeer horn, not found in caves where human bones were mixed up with those of animals. Little splinters of bone, one or two inches long, straight, slender, and pointed at both ends, have been found among the deposits of Bruniquel and the Dordogne valley, and are believed to have served as fish hooks during this epoch. Numerous instruments have been found which must have been used as needles, as they are exactly like those now employed by the Lapps for the same purpose. Prof. Owen thinks the men of this period were anthropophagists, because human skulls have been found mixed up with sculptured flints, remains of pottery, and children's bones on which there seem to be traces of human teeth.
To this period are also assigned the polishers, formed of sandstone or some other material with a rough surface; they were used for polishing bone and horn. Other objects classified as belonging to this age are barbed dartheads or harpoons; small flint saws, fine-toothed and double-edged; bone bodkins or stilettoes, either with or without a handle; smoothers, probably intended to flatten down the seams in the skins used for garments; flint points with a cutting edge, probably used as drills; whistles made from the first joint of the foot of a reindeer; staves of horn, which were perhaps symbols of authority; earthen vases and urns, which at the bottom bear traces of the action of fire; and first attempts at art, as sketches of mammoths graven on slabs of ivory, hilts of daggers carved in the shape of a reindeer, and representations of bisons, stags, and unknown herbivorous animals. The most important places where finds of such articles have been made are the grottoes and caves near Finale on the road from Genoa to Nice; a cave on a mountain near Geneva; the bottom of an ancient glacier moraine not far from the lake of Constance; the caverns at Solutre, Bour-deilles, Laugerie-Basse and Laugerie-Haute, Abbeville, Les Eyzies, Chaffant, La Madeleine, Lavache, and Bruniquel, in France; the cave of Chaleux, the settlements on the banks of the Lesse, the cave near Turfooz, in Belgium; and the gravel beds of Colorado and Wyoming, the loess of the lower Mississippi valley, and the Osage and Bourbeuse valleys, in North America.-The third ep®ch of the stone age, with domesticated animals of existing species, which is also designated as the polished stone epoch, is believed to embrace the finds made in the Kjoekken-moeddings (Dan. Kjoekken, kitchen; moedding, heap of refuse), or kitchen middens, principally in Scandinavia, but also discovered in Cornwall and Devonshire, England, in Scotland, and near Hyeres, at St. Va-lery, department of Pas-de-Calais, at La Salle, and at Cronquelets, in France. Darwin met with them in Tierra del Fuego; Dampier in Australia; Pereira da Costa on the coast of Portugal; Lyell on the coasts of Massachusetts and Georgia; and Strobel on the coast of Brazil. Numerous finds assigned to this epoch have also been made in the caves of Old Castile and the provinces of Seville and Badajoz in Spain, in the neighborhood of Civita Nuova in S. Italy, and in the island of Elba. Polished stone implements have also been found in Wiir-temberg, Hungary, Poland, and Russia. Le-guay found in 1860 near Varenne-Saint-lIilaire, at a spot called La Pierre au Pretre, a complete polishing stone, having on its surface three depressions of different sizes, two well defined grooves, and one merely sketched out.