Finland (Fin. Suomema, region of lakes), a grand duchy in the northwest of the Russian empire, lying between lat. 59° 45' and 70° N., and Ion. 20° 50' and 32° 50° E., bounded N. by the Norwegian province of Tromso, E. by the Russian provinces of Archangel and Olonetz, S. by the gulf of Finland, and TV. by the gulf of Bothnia and Sweden; area, 134,830 sq. m. The name of Finland was given to it by the Swedes. The lans or governments and their population in 1867 were as follows:

Nyland...................

174,383

Abo-Bjorneborg.....................

319,784

Tavastchuus........................

170,.264

Viborg..................

270,944

St. Michael..............................

161,936

Kuopio...................................

226,670

Vasa.........................................

313,109

Uleaborg..................................................

l84,758

Total.............................................

1,880,853

The population comprises 125,000 Swedish Finns, 8,000 Russians, 1,000 Lapps, 1,000 gypsies, and 400 Germans, the rest being Finns proper. In December, 1870, the population amounted to only 1,732,621, showing a considerable decrease since 1867; as in several years, in consequence of famine and epidemics, the number of deaths largely exceeded that of births. There are 34 towns with an aggregate population of 135,000, constituting only 7'5 per cent. of the total population, a smaller percentage than is found in any other country of Europe. The most populous districts are along the coast; there are some tracts in the interior wholly uninhabited. The population of the whole country is about 13 to the square mile. -The S. coast of Finland is bordered with rocky islets, between which and the mainland are narrow and intricate channels difficult of navigation. The TV. coast is generally low, but becomes very rocky near the Quarken, and in some parts is not less dangerous than the southern. Some of the islands, as those of Sveaborg, which command the entrance to the harbor of Helsingfors, are strongly fortified. The rivers are few and unimportant; the principal is the Kymmene, which flows into the gulf of Finland, and is broad and deep, but owing to cataracts is not navigable.

The lakes, however, constitute a prominent feature in the geography of the country, being very numerous and occupying a large proportion of the territory. Independently of Lake Ladoga, which lies partly in Finland, the largest of these sheets of water are Lakes Saima and Enare. The communication between the various watersheds and the Finnish gulf has been established since 1854 by the lake of Saima. The surface is table land from 400 to 600 ft. above the level of the sea, with occasional higher elevations. The Maan Selkti mountains, which with their various branches traverse the north, rise to an altitude of about 2,400 ft. The principal geological formation is red granite with hard limestone and slate. The granite is soft and readily disintegrates. The soil is poor and stony, but long furnished considerably more grain than was required for home consumption. The climate is more severe than that of Sweden, although resembling it in many other respects. Dense fogs are frequent, and the rains in autumn are very heavy. In the southern provinces the winter lasts seven months.

In the northern the sun disappears in December, and is not seen again until the middle of January; but during the short summer it is almost continually above the horizon.-The mineral products comprise bog iron, lead, sulphur, arsenic, and a little copper ore. Salt is very scarce, and is one of the principal articles of importation. The entire mineral produce of the country was in 1870 valued at $1,152,245. Among the fauna are the bear, wolf, elk, deer, beaver, polecat, and various kinds of game. Large herds of reindeer are domesticated in the north, and cattle breeding is a prominent branch of industry. Seals and herrings are caught off the coasts, and the lakes and streams abound in salmon and a small species of herring which form an important part of the food of the inhabitants. Finland was formerly called the granary of Sweden; but since the Russian conquest agricultural production is said to have declined. The chief crops are barley, rye, hops, hemp, flax, oats, leguminous plants, and potatoes. A little tobacco, carrots, cole wort, parsnips, and onions are also grown. Wild berries are almost the only fruit. The forests are extensive, reaching N. to lat. 69°, consisting principally of pine and fir, but containing also beech, elm, oak, poplar, ash, and birch.

These forests are one of the chief sources of national wealth, but have been much wasted by a system of manuring land with their ashes. The soil requires frequent stimulus, and when the cleared land ceases to produce sufficiently it is abandoned for other portions of soil, the timber of which is purposely burned. Much tar, pitch, and potash, however, as well as firewood, are still exported. The pasture lands are good, but ill managed.-Manufactures are chiefly domestic. The peasant prepares his own tar, potash, and charcoal, builds his own boat, makes his own chairs and tables, and in his cottage are woven the coarse woollen and other fabrics of which his dress is composed. But there are several cotton manufactories. In 1865 there were in Finland 32 manufactories of tobacco, 19 of glassware, 7 of paper, and various others. The aggregate produce of the Finnish manufactures in 1865 was valued at $2,962,880; the number of workmen employed was 6,946. The exports of Finland amounted in 1870 to 88,514.720 ($3,200,000 to Russia), and the imports to $7,848,480 ($2,769,-600 from Russia). The chief articles of export were timber and wooden ware, butter, iron, corn, tar, and fish; the chief imports were coffee, iron, sugar, raw cotton, salt, tobacco, wine, and brandy.

Of foreign countries, England ranks first as regards the exports of Finland, and Germany first as regards its imports. Finland has two banks: one national bank, Finlands Bank, established in 1811, and administered since 1868 by deputies of the diet; and one private, Foreningsbanlcen i Finland, founded in 1862, which in 1870 had branches in 17 towns. The commercial marine consisted in 1870 of 78 steamships and 504 sailing vessels, of 81,352 tons, manned by 5,742 sailors. The largest number of commercial vessels is owned by the town of Brahestad; next in order follow Abo, Nystad, Vasa, Uleaborg, and Jakob-stad. Not included in the above number are 1,109 coasting vessels, of 52,054 tons. There is regular steamship connection all along the coast from St. Petersburg to Tornea, as well as on most of the lakes in the interior of the country. There are 14 lighthouses and 740 pilots distributed among 97 stations. The first railway was opened in 1862 between Helsing-fors and Tavastehuus; in 1870 the railway between St. Petersburg and Helsingfors was completed, and in 1874 that between the former city and Hango. The entire length of the Finnish railways in 1871 was 298 m., of telegraph lines 1,686 m., and of telegraph wires 2,758 m.