Fredericton, a city and port of entry of New Brunswick, Canada, capital of the province and of the county of York, on the right bank of St. John river, 84 m. from the bay of Fundy, and 54 m. N. N.W. of St. John: lat. 45° 55' N., Ion. 66° 32' W.; pop. in 1871, 6,006. The city stands on a low point of land formed by a bend in the river, and is nearly encircled in the rear by a range of hills. It has broad streets crossing each other at right angles, adorned with many fine gardens and shade trees, and with several elegant public buildings. Queen street is the chief business thoroughfare, and contains the principal government buildings. At the E. end is the province building, a large wooden structure, in which the legislature and supreme court meet, containing a fine library. Near by are the various public offices. At the W. end is the government house, a fine stone structure, the residence of the lieutenant governor. On the N. side of the street are the county court house and city hall, large brick buildings, and the barracks, of stone, capable of accommodating a regiment of infantry. In York street are the depot of the Fredericton railroad and the skating rink, and in Westmoreland street the exhibition building, of wood, covering nearly an acre.

Other public buildings worthy of mention are the county jail, the custom house, and Christ church, cathedral (Episcopal), of stone, a fine specimen of church architecture. The river is here three fourths of a mile wide, and is naturally navigable to this point by vessels of 120 tons; light steamers can ascend to Grand Falls, 140 m. above Fredericton. The city became a port of entry in 1848, was incorporated in 1849, and is now the chief entrepot of commerce with the interior and an important station of passenger travel. Merchandise is principally brought up the river by steamers and schooners during the summer, but in winter there is a large traffic on the railways. In the vicinity are several large saw mills, and great quantities of lumber of various kinds are collected at Fredericton and thence exported to foreign ports. The lumber business is one of the principal sources of the wealth of the city. The Fredericton railroad connects with the European and North American railroad at Fredericton junction, 23 m. distant; and the city is also the terminus of the River du Loup or New Brunswick railway company's line. The city is lighted with gas, and contains two banks, a reading room, a telegraph office, eight churches, and four weekly newspapers.

The university of New Brunswick, a well endowed institution, with five professors, occupies a large stone building on a hill in the rear of the city. The other principal educational institutions are the provincial training and model school, and a collegiate school. - Fredericton was formerly called St. Ann's, and was made the seat of government by Sir Guy Carleton in 1785. It has suffered at times from terrible conflagrations, one of which in 1825 laid one third of the town in ashes, while another in November, 1850, was still more disastrous.

Christ Church, Cathedral.

Christ Church, Cathedral.