William Gammell, an American author, born in Medfield, Mass., Feb. 10, 1812. He graduated at Brown university in 1831, and soon afterward was appointed a tutor in the university; in 1835 he was chosen assistant, and in 1836 full professor of rhetoric. In 1850 he was transferred to the professorship of history and political economy, which chair he resigned in 1864. In 1859 he received the degree of LL. D. from the university of Rochester, and in 1870 was made one of the fellows of the corporation of Brown university. He has published various orations and discourses on literary and historical subjects; also numerous articles in reviews and magazines, especially in the Christian Review," of which for several years he was one of the editors. He has written a life of Roger Williams, and one of Governor Samuel Ward, for Sparks's American Biography;" and a "History of American Baptist Missions," at the request of the board of the American Baptist missionary union.

GANDOt I. A kingdom in Africa, lying on both sides of the principal branch of the Niger. It consists of several rich provinces, comprising the western half of Kebbi, Mauri or Arewa, Zaberma, Dendina, a great part of Goorma, a small portion of Borgoo, a large portion of Yoruba, Yauri, and Nufi. Much of the territory is well inhabited, and presents a luxuriant vegetation, embracing the yam, the date, and the banana. The inhabitants are of the Foolah race, and most of them Mohammedans. King Klialiloo, whom Barth visited in 1853, lived in almost monastic seclusion, leaving the administration in the hands of one of his brothers, in consequence of which the provinces were plunged into anarchy and mutual hostilities.

II. A town, the residence of the king, in a narrow valley surrounded by hilly chains, in lat. 12° 20' N., Ion. 4° 50' E., 615 m. N. E. of Cape Coast Castle. It is intersected from N. to S. by the broad and shallow bed of a torrent, the borders of which are covered with luxuriant vegetation, and is adorned with trees, among which the banana is prominent. The onion of Gando is superior in size and quality to any produced in the neighboring districts. The inhabitants prepare cotton cloth of excellent quality, but their dyeing is inferior.