Navigation

Navigation of the lake is rendered difficult both by sudden storms and by the absence of good bays and ports. The principal port on the western shore, Listvinichnoe, near the outflow of the Angara, is an open roadstead at the foot of steep mountains. Steamers ply from it weekly to Misovaya (Posolskoe) on the opposite shore, a few times a year to Verkhne-Angarsk, at the northern extremity of the lake, and frequently to the mouth of the Selenga. Steamers ascend this river as far as Bilyutai, near the Mongolian frontier, and bring back tea, imported via Kiakhta, while grain, cedar nuts, salt, soda, wool and timber are shipped on rafts down the Khilok, Chikoi and Uda (tributaries of the Selenga), and manufactured goods are taken up the river for export to China. Attempts are being made to render the Angara navigable below Irkutsk down to the Yenisei. In winter, when the lake is covered with ice 3 ft. to 4 ft. thick, it is crossed on sledges from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya. But a highway, available all the year round, was made in 1863-1864 around its southern shore, partly by blasting the cliffs, and it is now (since 1905) followed by the trans-Siberian railway.

Further, a powerful ice-breaker is used to ferry trains across from Listvinichnoe to Misovaya.

Authorities

Drizhenko, "Hydrographic Reconnoitring of Lake Baikal," in Izvestia Russ. Geogr. Soc. (1897, 2); Russian Addenda to Ritter's Asia, East Siberia, Baikal, etc. (1895); Chersky's Geological Map of Shores of Lake Baikal, 6⅔ m. to the inch, in Zapiski of Russ. Geogr. Soc. xv. (1886); "Report of Geological Exploration of Shores of Lake Baikal," in Zapiski of East Siberian Branch of Russ. Geogr. Soc. xii. (1886); Obruchev, "Geology of Baikal Mountains," Izvestia of same Society (1890, xxi. 4 and 5); Dybowski and Godlewski on "Fauna," in same periodical (1876); Witkowski, on "Seals"; Yakovlev's "Fishes of Angara," in same periodical (1890-1893); "Fishing in Lake Baikal and its Tributaries," in same periodical (1886-1890); and La Géographie (No. 3, 1904).

(P. A. K.; J. T. Be.)