Climate

The subjoined figures relating to temperature and precipitation are from a table prepared by Mr R.F. Stupart, director of the meteorological service. The station at Victoria may be taken as representing the conditions of the southern part of the coast of British Columbia, although the rainfall is much greater on exposed parts of the outer coast. Agassiz represents the Fraser delta and Kamloops the southern interior district. The mean temperature naturally decreases to the northward of these selected stations, both along the coast and in the interior, while the precipitation increases. The figures given for Port Simpson are of interest, as the Pacific terminus of the Grand Trunk Pacific railway will be in this vicinity.

Mean Temp., Fahr.

Absolute Temperature.

Rainfall - Inches.

Coldest Month.

Warmest Month.

Average Annual.

Highest.

Lowest.

Wettest Month.

Driest Month.

Average Annual.

Victoria[1]

Jan. 37.5°

July 60.3°

48.8°

90°

-1°

Dec. 7.98

July .4

37.77

Agassiz[2]

Jan. 33.0°

Aug. 64.7°

48.9°

97°

-13°

Dec. 9.43

July 1.55

66.85

Kamloops[3]

Jan. 24.2°

Aug. 68.5°

47.1°

101°

-27°

July 1.61

April .37

11.46

Port Simpson[4]

Jan. 34.9°

Aug. 56.9°

45.1°

88°

-10°

Oct. 12.42

June 4.37

94.63

[1] 48° 24′ N., 123° 19′ W., height 85 ft.

[2] 49° 14′ N., 121° 31′ W., height 52 ft.

[3] 50° 41′ N., 120° 29′ W., height 1193 ft.

[4] 54° 34′ N., 130° 26′ W., height 26 ft.

Fauna

Among the larger mammals are the big-horn or mountain sheep (Ovis canadensis), the Rocky Mountain goat (Mazama montana), the grizzly bear, moose, woodland caribou, black-tailed or mule deer, white-tailed deer, and coyote. All these are to be found only on the mainland. The black bear, wolf, puma, lynx, wapiti, and Columbian or coast deer are common to parts of both mainland and islands. Of marine mammals the most characteristic are the sea-lion, fur-seal, sea-otter and harbour-seal. About 340 species of birds are known to occur in the province, among which, as of special interest, may be mentioned the burrowing owl of the dry, interior region, the American magpie, Steller's jay and a true nut-cracker, Clark's crow (Picicorvus columbianus). True jays and orioles are also well represented. The gallinaceous birds include the large blue grouse of the coast, replaced in the Rocky Mountains by the dusky grouse. The western form of the "spruce partridge" of eastern Canada is also abundant, together with several forms referred to the genus Bonasa, generally known as "partridges" or ruffed grouse. Ptarmigans also abound in many of the higher mountain regions. Of the Anatidae only passing mention need be made.

During the spring and autumn migrations many species are found in great abundance, but in the summer a smaller number remain to breed, chief among which are the teal, mallard, wood-duck, spoon-bill, pin-tail, buffle-head, red-head, canvas-back, scaup-duck, etc.