Caesarea Palaestina, a town built by Herod about 25-13 B.C., on the sea-coast of Palestine, 30 miles N. of Joppa, on the site of a place previously called Tunis Stratonis. Remains of all the principal buildings erected by Herod existed down to the end of the 19th century; the ruins were much injured by a colony of Bosnians established here in 1884. These buildings are a temple, dedicated to Caesar; a theatre; a hippodrome; two aqueducts; a boundary wall; and, chief of all, a gigantic mole, 200 ft. wide, built of stones 50 ft. long, in 20 fathoms of water, protecting the harbour on the south and west. The harbour measures 180 yds. across. The massacre of Jews at this place led to the Jewish rebellion and to the Roman war. Vespasian made it a colony and called it Flavia: the old name, however, persisted, and still survives as Kaisarieh. Eusebius was archbishop here (A.D. 315-318). It was captured by the Moslems in 638 and by the Crusaders in 1102, by Saladin in 1187, recaptured by the Crusaders in 1191, and finally lost by them in 1265, since when till its recent settlement it has lain in ruins.

Remains of the medieval town are also visible, consisting of the walls (one-tenth the area of the Roman city), the castle, the cathedral (now covered by modern houses), and a church.

(R. A. S. M.)