Boys' integraph was invented during a sleepless night, and during the following days carried out as a working model, which gives highly satisfactory results. It is ingenious in its simplicity, and a direct realization as a mechanism of the principles explained in connexion with fig. 21. The line B′B is represented by the edge of an ordinary T-square sliding against the edge of a drawing-board. The points B and P are connected by two rods BE and EP, jointed at E. At B, E and P are small pulleys of equal diameters. Over these an endless string runs, ensuring that the pulleys at B and P always turn through equal angles. The pulley at B is fixed to a rod which passes through the point D, which itself is fixed in the T-square. The pulley at P carries the knife-edge wheel. If then B and P are kept on the edge of the T-square, and B is guided along the curve, the wheel at P will roll along the Y-curve, it having been originally set parallel to BD. To give the wheel at P sufficient grip on the paper, a small loaded three-wheeled carriage, the knife-edge wheel P being one of its wheels, is added.
If a piece of copying paper is inserted between the wheel P and the drawing paper the Y-curve is drawn very sharply.
Integraphs have also been constructed, by aid of which ordinary differential equations, especially linear ones, can be solved, the solution being given as a curve. The first suggestion in this direction was made by Lord Kelvin. So far no really useful instrument has been made, although the ideas seem sufficiently developed to enable a skilful instrument-maker to produce one should there be sufficient demand for it. Sometimes a combination of graphical work with an integraph will serve the purpose. This is the case if the variables are separated, hence if the equation
Xdx + Ydy = 0
has to be integrated where X = p(x), Y = φ(y) are given as curves. If we write
au = ∫Xdx, av = ∫Ydy,
then u as a function of x, and v as a function of y can be graphically found by the integraph. The general solution is then
u + v = c
with the condition, for the determination for c, that y = y, for x = x. This determines c = u + v, where u and v are known from the graphs of u and v. From this the solution as a curve giving y a function of x can be drawn: - For any x take u from its graph, and find the y for which v = c - u, plotting these y against their x gives the curve required.
If a periodic function y of x is given by its graph for one period c, it can, according to the theory of Fourier's Series, be Harmonic analysers. expanded in a series.
y = A + A cos θ + A cos 2θ + ... + A cos nθ + ...
+ B sin θ + B sin 2θ + ... + B sin nθ + ...
where θ = 2πx / c.
The absolute term A equals the mean ordinate of the curve, and can therefore be determined by any planimeter. The other co-efficients are
|∫2π y cos nθ.dθ; B =||1|
|∫2π y sin nθ.dθ.|
A harmonic analyser is an instrument which determines these integrals, and is therefore an integrator. The first instrument of this kind is due to Lord Kelvin (Proc. Roy Soc., vol xxiv., 1876). Since then several others have been invented (see Dyck's Catalogue; Henrici, Phil. Mag., July 1894; Phys. Soc., 9th March; Sharp, Phil. Mag., July 1894; Phys. Soc., 13th April). In Lord Kelvin's instrument the curve to be analysed is drawn on a cylinder whose circumference equals the period c, and the sine and cosine terms of the integral are introduced by aid of simple harmonic motion. Sommerfeld and Wiechert, of Konigsberg, avoid this motion by turning the cylinder about an axis perpendicular to that of the cylinder. Both these machines are large, and practically fixtures in the room where they are used. The first has done good work in the Meteorological Office in London in the analysis of meteorological curves. Quite different and simpler constructions can be used, if the integrals determining A and B be integrated by parts.
|nA = -||1|
|∫2π sin nθ.dy; nB =||1|
|∫2π cos nθ.dy.|
An analyser presently to be described, based on these forms, has been constructed by Coradi in Zurich (1894). Lastly, a most powerful analyser has been invented by Michelson and Stratton (U.S.A.) (Phil Mag., 1898), which will also be described.
The Henrici-Coradi analyser has to add up the values of dy.sin nθ and dy.cos nθ. But these are the components of dy in two directions perpendicular to each other, of which one makes an angle nθ with the axis of x or of θ. This decomposition can be performed by Amsler's registering wheels. Let two of these be mounted, perpendicular to each other, in one horizontal frame which can be turned about a vertical axis, the wheels resting on the paper on which the curve is drawn. When the tracer is placed on the curve at the point θ = 0 the one axis is parallel to the axis of θ. As the tracer follows the curve the frame is made to turn through an angle nθ. At the same time the frame moves with the tracer in the direction of y. For a small motion the two wheels will then register just the components required, and during the continued motion of the tracer along the curve the wheels will add these components, and thus give the values of nA and nB. The factors 1/π and -1/π are taken account of in the graduation of the wheels. The readings have then to be divided by n to give the coefficients required.
Coradi's realization of this idea will be understood from fig. 23. The frame PP′ of the instrument rests on three rollers E, E′, and D. The first two drive an axis with a disk C on it. It is placed parallel to the axis of x of the curve. The tracer is attached to a carriage WW which runs on the rail P. As it follows the curve this carriage moves through a distance x whilst the whole instrument runs forward through a distance y. The wheel C turns through an angle proportional, during each small motion, to dy. On it rests a glass sphere which will therefore also turn about its horizontal axis proportionally, to dy. The registering frame is suspended by aid of a spindle S, having a disk H. It is turned by aid of a wire connected with the carriage WW, and turns n times round as the tracer describes the whole length of the curve. The registering wheels R, R′ rest against the glass sphere and give the values nA and nB. The value of n can be altered by changing the disk H into one of different diameter. It is also possible to mount on the same frame a number of spindles with registering wheels and glass spheres, each of the latter resting on a separate disk C. As many as five have been introduced.