The Gallic campaigns have been treated by Napoleon III., Histoire de Jules César (1865-1866), which is valuable as giving the result of excavations, and in English by T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul (1901), in which references to earlier literature will be found. A later account is that of G. Veith, Geschichte der Feldzüge C. Julius Caesars (1906). For maps see A. von Kampen. For the Civil War see Colonel Stoffel (the collaborator of Napoleon III.), Histoire de Jules César: guerre civile (1887). There is an interesting article, "The Likenesses of Julius Caesar," by J.C. Ropes, in Scribner's Magazine, Feb. 1887, with 18 plates.

(H. S. J.)

Medieval Legends.

In the middle ages the story of Caesar did not undergo such extraordinary transformations as befell the history of Alexander the Great and the Theban legend. Lucan was regularly read in medieval schools, and the general facts of Caesar's life were too well known. He was generally, by a curious error, regarded as the first emperor of Rome,[5] and representing as he did in the popular mind the glory of Rome, by an easy transition he became a pillar of the Church. Thus, in a French pseudo-historic romance, Les Faits des Romains (c. 1223), he receives the honour of a bishopric. His name was not usually associated with the marvellous, and the trouvère of Huon de Bordeaux outstepped the usual sober tradition when he made Oberon the son of Julius Caesar and Morgan la Fay. About 1240 Jehan de Tuim composed a prose Hystore de Julius Cesar (ed. F. Settegast, Halle, 1881) based on the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the commentaries of Caesar (on the Civil War) and his continuators (on the Alexandrine, African and Spanish wars). The author gives a romantic description of the meeting with Cleopatra, with an interpolated dissertation on amour courtois as understood by the trouvères. The Hystore was turned into verse (alexandrines) by Jacot de Forest (latter part of the 13th century) under the title of Roman de Julius César. A prose compilation by an unknown author, Les Fails des Romains (c. 1225), has little resemblance to the last two works, although mainly derived from the same sources.

It was originally intended to contain a history of the twelve Caesars, but concluded with the murder of the dictator, and in some MSS. bears the title of Li livres de César. Its popularity is proved by the numerous MSS. in which it is preserved and by three separate translations into Italian. A Mistaire de Julius César is said to have been represented at Amboise in 1500 before Louis XII.

See A. Graf, Roma nella memoria e nella imaginazione del medio evo, i. ch. 8 (1882-1883); P. Meyer in Romania, xiv. (Paris, 1885), where the Faits des Romains is analysed at length; A. Duval in Histoire littéraire de la France, xix. (1838); L. Constans in Petit de Jullevilles' Hist. de la langue et de la litt. française, i. (1896); H. Wesemann, Die Cäsarfabeln des Mittelalters (Löwenberg, 1879).

(M. Br.)

[1] In spite of the explicit statements of Suetonius, Plutarch and Appian that Caesar was in his fifty-sixth year at the time of his murder, it is, as Mommsen has shown, practically certain that he was born in 102 B.C., since he held the chief offices of state in regular order, beginning with the aedileship in 65 B.C., and the legal age for this was fixed at 37-38.

[2] Suetonius, Jul. 76, errs in stating that he used the title imperator as a praenomen.

[3] The statement of Dio and Suetonius, that a general cura legum et morum was conferred on Caesar in 46 B.C., is rejected by Mommsen. It is possible that it may have some foundation in the terms of the law establishing his third dictatorship.

[4] Since the discovery of a fragmentary municipal charter at Tarentum (see Rome), dating from a period shortly after the Social War, doubts have been cast on the identification of the tables of Heraclea with Caesar's municipal statute. It has been questioned whether Caesar passed such a law, since the Lex Julia Municipalis mentioned in an inscription of Patavium (Padua) may have been a local charter. See Legras, La Table latine d'Héraclée (Paris, 1907).

[5] Brunetto Latini, Trésor: "Et ainsi Julius César fu li premiers empereres des Romains."