These are water, malt (q.v.), hops (q.v.), various substitutes for the two latter, and preservatives.

Water

A satisfactory supply of water - which, it may here be mentioned, is always called liquor in the brewery - is a matter of great importance to the brewer. Certain waters, for instance, those contaminated to any extent with organic matter, cannot be used at all in brewing, as they give rise to unsatisfactory fermentation, cloudiness and abnormal flavour. Others again, although suited to the production of one type of beer, are quite unfit for the brewing of another. For black beers a soft water is a desideratum, for ales of the Burton type a hard water is a necessity. For the brewing of mild ales, again, a water containing a certain proportion of chlorides is required. The presence or absence of certain mineral substances as such in the finished beer is not, apparently, a matter of any moment as regards flavour or appearance, but the importance of the rôle played by these substances in the brewing process is due to the influence which they exert on the solvent action of the water on the various constituents of the malt, and possibly of the hops. The excellent quality of the Burton ales was long ago surmised to be due mainly to the well water obtainable in that town.

On analysing Burton water it was found to contain a considerable quantity of calcium sulphate - gypsum - and of other calcium and magnesium salts, and it is now a well-known fact that good bitter ales cannot be brewed except with waters containing these substances in sufficient quantities. Similarly, good mild ale waters should contain a certain quantity of sodium chloride, and waters for stout very little mineral matter, excepting perhaps the carbonates of the alkaline earths, which are precipitated on boiling.

The following analyses (from W.J. Sykes, The Principles and Practice of Brewing) are fairly illustrative of typical brewing waters.

Burton Water (Pale Ale)

Grains per Gallon

Sodium Chloride

3.90

Potassium Sulphate

1.59

Sodium Nitrate

1.97

Calcium Sulphate

77.87

Calcium Carbonate

7.62

Magnesium Carbonate

21.31

Silica and Alumina

0.98

Dublin Water (Stout).

Sodium Chloride

1.83

Calcium Sulphate

4.45

Calcium Carbonate

14.21

Magnesium Carbonate

0.90

Iron Oxide and Alumina

0.24

Silica

0.26

Mild Ale Water.

Sodium Chloride

35.14

Calcium Chloride

3.88

Calcium Sulphate

6.23

Calcium Carbonate

4.01

Iron Oxide and Alumina

0.24

Silica

0.22

Our knowledge of the essential chemical constituents of brewing waters enables brewers in many cases to treat an unsatisfactory supply artificially in such a manner as to modify its character in a favourable sense. Thus, if a soft water only is to hand, and it is desired to brew a bitter ale, all that is necessary is to add a sufficiency of gypsum, magnesium sulphate and calcium chloride. If it is desired to convert a soft water lacking in chlorides into a satisfactory mild ale liquor, the addition of 30-40 grains of sodium chloride will be necessary. On the other hand, to convert a hard water into a soft supply is scarcely feasible for brewing purposes. To the substances used for treating brewing liquors already mentioned we may add kainite, a naturally deposited composite salt containing potassium and magnesium sulphates and magnesium chloride.