Syrups. Syrups are solutions of sugar more or less strong according to the object for which they are used. In the preparation of syrups, if care be taken to employ the best refined sugar, and either distilled water or filtered rain water, they will bo rendered much less liable to spontaneous decomposition, and will be perfectly transparent, without the trouble of clarification.

1357. Clarification of Sugar for Syrups

1357.      Clarification of Sugar for Syrups. When inferior sugar is employed, clarification is always necessary. This is best done by dissolving the sugar in the water or fruit juices cold, and then beating up a little of the cold syrup with some white of egg, and 1 or 2 ounces of cold water, until the mixture froths well; this must be added to the syrup in the boiler, and the whole whisked up to a good froth; heat should now be applied, and the scum which forms removed from time to time with a clean skimmer. As soon as the syrup begins to slightly simmer it must be removed from the fire, and allowed to stand until it has cooled a little, when it should be again skimmed, if necessary, and then passed through a clean flannel. When vegetable infusions or solutions enter into the composition of syrups, they should be rendered perfectly transparent, by filtration or clarification, before being added to the sugar.

1358. Filters for Syrups

1358.    Filters for Syrups. Syrups are usually filtered, on the large scale, by passing them through creased bag filters; on the small scale, conical flannel bags are usually adopted. Thick syrups filter with difficulty, hence it is a good plan to dilute them before filtering, and afterwards evaporate them to the required consistency. For small quantities clarification involves less trouble than filtration. (See No. 1357 (Clarification of Sugar for Syrups).)

1359. To make a Conical Filter

1359.     To make a Conical Filter. Take a square piece of flannel or Canton flannel, fold it diagonally, and sew two of the corresponding edges together with an over-lap seam, leaving the other

1359 To make a Conical Filter 22

two edges open; then fold the open edge over, sufficiently to make the opening level. (See Fig. 1.) This fold gives a considerable degree of stiffness to the open end, preventing the filter in some measure from collapsing. Professor Parrish, in his book on Practical Pharmacy, recommends the use of a conical wire frame (see Fig. 2) to support the filter. The frame is made to fit into the top of a suitable tin bucket, being supported by a rim or flange around the top of the frame, projecting sufficiently to rest on the edge of the bucket.

1360. Quantity of Sugar Used in Making Syrups

1360. Quantity of Sugar Used in Making Syrups. The proper quantity of sugar for syrups will, in general, be found to be 2 pounds avoirdupois to every pint of wa-

1360 Quantity of Sugar Used in Making Syrups 23

Fig.2.

The filter must fit the frame.

ter or thin aqueous fluid. These proportions allow for the water that is lost by evaporation during the process, and are those best calculated to produce a syrup of the proper consistence, and possessing good keeping qualities. They closely correspond to those recommended by Guibourt for the production of a perfect syrup, which, he says, consists of 30 parts sugar to 1C parts water. To make highly transparent syrups the sugar should be in a single lump, and by preference taken from the bottom or broad end of the loaf; as, when taken from the smaller end, or if it bo powdered or bruised, the syrup will be more or less cloudy.