Red is one of the five simple or primitive colours.


Madder. A red, bitter astringent root, of a plant called Rubia Tinctorum; much used by dyers, to give a strong, rich, red colour. It is useful in medicine, being found of ser-vice in obstructions, and in an ill state of the humours of the body. It is generally made up in form of decoctions, diet drinks, and medicated ales.


Carmine. Is a bright red or crimson colour, bordering on purple, used by painters in miniature. It is rarely used in oil, on account of its price. Carmine is the motst valuable product of the cochineal mestique, which is a sediment at the bottom of the water, wherein is steeped cochineal, couan, and autour ; some add rocou, or annatto, but this gives the carmine too much of the orange cast. To be good it must be almost an impalpable powder; that is, a powder scarcely perceptible by the touch. Some prepare a carmine with brazil wood, fernambouc, and gold leaf, beat in a mortar, and steeped in white wine vinegar; the scum arising from this mixture on boiling, when dried, makes carmine; but this kind is much inferior to the former.

Lakh, Or Lacca

Lakh, Or Lacca. The red that is called artificial is made of Brazil wood, boiled in ley made of the branches of the vine ; or, as it is otherwise expressed, Brazil wood boiled in a lixivium of the branches of the vine, adding a little cochineal, terra-merita, calcined alum, with the bones of the cuttle-fish pulverized, and made up into little cakes and dried. If to make it very red, the juice of citron is added, and if brown, oil of tartar. Artificial Lake is also a name given to a coloured substance, drawn from several flowers; as the yellow from the flower of the juniper, the red from the poppy, etc, the blue from the iris or violet.

Rose Pink, Or Rose Lake

Rose Pink, Or Rose Lake. Is prepared from chalk, and an extract of Brazil or Campeachy wood. It is the most common paint used by stage-players, and is useful to house-painters and paper-stainers, where it can be secured from the air by a varnish.

Red Chalk, Or Bed Crayon

Red Chalk, Or Bed Crayon. Is an iron ore used for sketching figures; and also forms a good light red, either in oil or water.


Yellow. Is one of the five simple and primitive colours.


Fustic. Which is a yellow wood brought from Cuba, Tobago, Brazil, and the West Indies. The real fustic tree is a species of mulberry, Morns Tinctoria, and grows to a considerable size ; its wood ground to powder, and the

Quercitron Bark

Quercitron Bark. Which is produced by a large American tree, called yellow oak, are now the principal substances which yield all the yellow dies in our manufactories. W eld. The Reseda Luteola of Linnaeus is a

Plant used by dyers to give a yellow colour. It is much cultivated in Kent for the use of the London dyers. With the help of potash it yields a deep lemon colour. It serves to die all colours, between white and a deep yellow; and its dye will hold well. For the finest yellows, dyers first boil the cloth or stuff in alum or potasn, and then give the colour with weld or woad.