When they are very severe, lay a cloth over the part, and suspend a basin over it filled with cold lotion. (969, 970.) Put a piece of cotton into the basin, so that it shall allow the lotion to drop on the cloth, and thus keep it always wet.
2248. Hemorrhage, when caused by an artery being divided or torn, may be known by the blood jumping out of the wound, and being of a bright scarlet colour. If a vein is injured, the blood is darker, and flows continuously. To stop the latter, apply pressure by means of a compress and bandage. To arrest arterial bleeding get a piece of wood (part of a mop-handle will do), and tie a piece of tape to one end of it; then tie a piece of tape loosely over the arm, and pass the other end of the wood under it; twist the stick round and round until the tape compresses the arm sufficiently to arrest the bleeding, and then confine the other end by tying the string round the arm. If the bleeding is very obstinate, and it occurs in the arm, place a cork underneath the string, on the inside of the fleshy part, where the artery may be felt beating by any one; if in the leg, place a cork in the direction of a line drawn from the inner part of the knee a little to the outside of the groin. It is an excellent thing to accustom yourself to find out the position of these arteries, or indeed any that are superficial, and to explain to every one in your house where they ore. and how to stop bleeding. If a stick cannot be got, take a handkerchief make -a cord bandage of it, and tie a knot in the middle; the knot acts as a compress, and should be placed over the artery, while the two ends are to be tied around the thumb. Observe always to place the ligature between the wound and the heart. Putting your finger into a bleeding wound, and making pressure until a surgeon arrives, will generally stop violent bleeding.
2249. Bleeding from the Nose, from whatever cause, may generally be stopped by putting a plug of lint into the nostrils; if this does not do, apply a cold lotion to the forehead (969,970); raise the head, and place both arms over the head, so that it will rest on both hands; dip the lint plug, slightly moistened, into some powdered gum arabic, and plug the nostrils again; or dip the plug into equal parts of powdered gum arabic and alum, and plug the nose. If the bowels are confined, take a purgative.
2250. Violent shocks will sometimes stun a person, and he will remain unconscious. Untie strings, collars, &c; loose anything that is tight, and interferes with the breathing; raise the head; see if there is bleeding from any part; apply smelling-salts to the nose, and hot bottles to the feet.
2251. In Concussion, the surface of the body is cold and pale, and the pulse weak and small, the breathing slow and gentle, and the pupil of the eye generally contracted or small. You can get a answer by speaking loud so as to arouse the patient. Give a little brandy and water, keep the place quiet, apply warmth, and do not raise the head too high. If you tickle the feet, the patient feels it.
2252. In Compression of the Brain, from any cause, such as apoplexy, or a piece of fractured bone pressing on it, there is loss of sensation. If you tickle the feet, he does not feel in You cannot arouse him so as to get an answer. The pulse is slow, and labored; the breathing slow, labored, and snoreing; the pupils enlarged. Raise the head, unloose strings or tight things, and send for a surgeon. If one cannot be got at once, apply mustard-poultices to the feet, and leeches to the temples.