3195. Men are often measured by weight of intellect or character, which is very diversified, but not more than the weights and measures of men in different regions, by which they measure merchandise and produce to one an other. For instance, a Barrel Measure.
3196. What is it? This it is, when selling the following articles :
3197. Cider and other liquids, 3) gallons. Rice, 600 lbs. Flour, 196 lbs. Powder, 25 lbs Corn, as bought and sold in Kentucky, Tennessee, etc, 5 bushels of shelled corn. As bought and sold a New-Orleans, a flour barrel full of ears Potatoes, as sold in New-York, a barrel contains 2 1/4 bushels. Pork, a barrel is 200 lbs., distinguished in quality by "clear," "mess," " prime." A barrel of beef is the same weight.
3198. A barrel of salt, in one place, is 280 lbs., and in another "five bushels," though in measuring the bushel, cubic inches are not resorted to, but pounds, arbitrarily calling a bushel of salt 56 lbs. in one place, and 50 lbs. in another.
The legal bushel of America is the old Winchester measure of 2,150.42 cubic inches. The imperial bushel of England is 2,218.142 cubic inches ; so that
32 English bushels are about equal to
33 of ours.
3200. Although we are all the time talking about the price of grain, etc, by the bushel, we sell by weight, as follows:
3201. Wheat, beans, potatoes, and clover seed, 60 lbs. Corn, rye, flaxseed, and onions, 56 lbs. Corn on the cob, 70 lbs. Buckwheat, 52 lbs. Barley, 48 lbs. Hemp seed, 44 lbs. Timothy seed, 45 lbs. Castor beans, 46 lbs. Oats, 35 lbs. Bran, 20 lbs. Blue grass seed, 14 lbs. Salt; the real weight of coarse salt is 85 lbs. Dried apples, 24 lbs. Dried peaches, 33 lbs. according to some rules, but others are 22 Ibs. for a bushel, while in Indiana, dried apples and peaches are sold by the heaping bushel. So are potatoes, turnips, onions, apples. etc, and in some sections oats are heaped. A bushel of corn in the ear is three heaped half bushels, or four even full.
3202. In Tennessee, a hundred ears of corn is sometimes counted as a bushel. At Chester, England, a bushel is 32 gallons; at Carlisle, 24 gallons; at Penrith, 16 gallons; at Abbington, 9 gallons.
3203. A hoop 18 1/2 inches diameter, 8 inches deep, holds a Winchester bushel. A box 12 inches square, 7 and 7 1-32 deep, will hold half a bushel. A heaping bushel is 2.815 cubic inches.
An English imperial gallon is 10 lbs. of distilled water at 62° Fahrenheit, when the barometer stands at 30. This is 277.274 cubic inches. The old wine measure in use here is 231 inches; and "beer measure" 282 inches.
3205. The question, if asked: "What is a gallon measure?" can only be answered by measuring the man who is buying or selling.
An English imperial acre is 4,840 square yards, or 160 square rods. A square 13 rods upon each side is commonly counted an acre; it is nine rods over measure. A square 22 yards upon each 6ide is one-tenth of an acre.
3207. The following gives the comparative size in square yards of acres in different countries:
English acre , 4,840 square yards; Scotch, 6,150; Irish, 7,840; Hamburg, 11,545; Amsterdam, 9,722; Dantzic, 6,650 | France (hectare), 11,960; Prussia (morgen), 3,053.
This difference should be borne in mind in reading of the products per acre in different countries. Our land measure is that of England.