3675. To Prepare Starch - Tube two tablespoonfuls of starch dissolved in as much water; add a gill of cold water; then add one pint of boiling water, and boil it half an hour, adding a small piece of spermaceti, sugar, or salt; strain, etc. Thin it with water.
3676. Flour Starch - Mix flour gradually with cold water, so that it may be free from lumps. Stir in cold water till it will pour easily; then stir it into a pot of boiling water, and let it boil five or six minutes, stirring it frequently. A little spermaceti will make it smoother. This starch will answer very well for Cotton and- linen. Poland starch is made in the same manner.
Boil a piece of glue four inches square, in three quarts of water. Keep it in a bottle well corked. Use for calicoes.
3678. - Gum Starch - Dissolve four ounces of gum arabic, in a quart of hot water, and Bet it away in a bottle corked. This is used for silks and fine muslins. It can be mixed with water at discretion. (See 91.)
Muslins look well when starched, and clapped dry, while the starch is hot, then folded in a damp cloth, till they become quite damp, before ironing them. If muslins are sprinkled, they are apt to be spotted. Some ladies clap muslins, hen dry them, and afterwards sprinkle them.
Fold the fine articles and roll them in a towel, and then fold the rest, turning them all right side outward. Lay the colored articles separate from the rest. They should not remain damp long as the colors might be iujured. Sheets and table linen, should be shaken and folded.
In ironing a shirt first do the back, then the sleeves, then the collar and bosom, and then the front. Iron calicoes generally on the right side, as they thus keep clean for a longer time. In ironing a frock, first do the waist, then the sleeves, then the skirt. Keep the skirt rolled while ironing the other parts, and set a chair to hold the sleeves while ironing the skirt, unless a skirt-board be used. Silk should be ironed on the wrong side, when quite damp, with an iron which is not very hot, light colors are apt to change and fade. In ironing velvet, turn up the face of the iron, and after dampening the wrong side of the velvet, draw it over the face of the iron, holding it straight; always iron lace and needlework on the wrong side, and carry them away as soon as they are dry.
Clear-starching etc. To Make Starch for Linen, Cotton etc - To one ounce of the best starch add just enough soft cold water to make it (by rubbing and stirring,) into a thick paste, carefully breaking all the lumps and particles. When rubbed perfectly smooth, add nearly or quite a pint of boiling water (with bluing to suit the taste), and boil for at least half an hour, taking care to have it well stirred all the time, to prevent its burning. When not stirring, keep it covered, to prevent the accumulation of dust, etc. Also keep it covered when removed from the fire, to prevent a scum from rising upon it. To give the linen a fine, smooth, glossy appearance, and prevent the iron from sticking, add a little spermaceti (a piece as large as a nutmeg) to the starch, when boiling, and half a teaspoonful of the finest table-salt. If you have no sperm-aceti (to be had cheap at any druggists), take a piece of the purest, whitest hog's lard. or tallow (mutton is the best), about as large as a nutmeg, or twice this quantity of the best refined loaf sugar, and boil with the starch. In ironing linen collars, shirt bosoms, etc., their appearance will be much improved, by rubbing them, before ironing, with a clean white towel, dampened in soft water. The bosom of a shirt should be the last part ironed, as this will prevent its being soiled. All starch should be strained before using.
Starch for laces should be thicker and used hotter than for linens. After your lace3 have been well washed and dried, dip them into the thick hot starch in such a way as to have every part properly starched. Then wring all the starch out of them, and spread them out smooth on a piece of linen, and roll them up together, and let them remain for about half an hour, when they will be dry enough to iron. Laces should never be clapped between the hands, as it injures them. Cambrics do not require so thick starch as net or lace. Some people prefer cold or raw starch for book-muslin, as some of this kind of muslin has a thick clammy appearance, if starched in boiled starch. Finalaces are sometimes wound round a glass bottle to dry, which prevents then from shrinking.
Ordinary laces and worked muslin can be ironed by the usual process with a smoothing or sad-iron; finer laces cannot. When the lace has been starched and dried, ready for ironing, spread it out as smooth as possible on an iron-cloth, and pass over it, back and forth, as quickly as you can, a smooth, round glass bottle containing hot water, giving the bottle such pressure as may be required to smooth the lace. Sometimes you may pass the laces over the bottle, taking care to keep them smooth. Either way is much better than to iron laces with an iron. In filling the bottle with hot water, care must be taken not to pour it in too fast, as the bottle will break. (See 2501.)
Warm a smoothing-iron moderately, and cover it with a wet cloth, and lay, or hold it under the velvet, on the wrong side. The steam from this will penetrate the velvet, and you can raise the pile with a common brush, and make it appear as good as new. (See No. 555.)