Burnt copper is nothing more or less than copper in the overpoled condition. This is brought about by the action of reducing gases in the muffle. By this means the small amount of oxygen necessary to give the copper its tough pitch is removed. This oxygen is combined with impurities in the copper, and thus renders them inert. For example, the oxide of arsenic or antimony is incapable of combining more than mechanically with the copper, but when its oxygen is removed the arsenic or antimony is left free to combine with the copper. This forms a brittle alloy, and one that corresponds almost exactly in its properties with overpoled copper. To be sure overpoled copper is supposed to contain carbon, but that this is not the essential ruling principle in case of annealing is shown by the fact that pure copper does not undergo this change under conditions that ruin impure copper, and also by the fact that the same state may be produced by annealing in pure hydrogen and thus removing the oxygen that renders the arsenic or antimony inert. No attempt is made to deny the well-known fact that carbon does combine with copper to the extent of 0.2 per cent and cause it to become exceedingly brittle. It is simply claimed that this is probably not what occurs in the production of so-called burnt copper during annealing. The amount of impurities capable of rendering copper easily burnt is exceedingly small. This may be better appreciated when it is considered that from 0.01 to 0.2 per cent expresses the amount of oxygen necessary to render the impurities inert. The removal of this very small amount of oxygen, which is often so small as to be almost within the limits of the errors of analysis, will suffice to render copper overpoled and ruin it for any use.

There are methods of avoiding the numerous accidents that may occur in the annealing of copper, due to a change of pitch. As already pointed out, the quality of refined copper is lowered if oxygen be either added to or taken from it. It is quite apparent, therefore, that a really good method of annealing copper will prevent any change in the state of oxidation. It is necessary to prevent access to the heated copper both of atmospheric air, which would oxidize it, and of the reducing gases used in heating the muffle, which would take oxygen away from it. Obviously the only way of accomplishing this is to inclose the copper when heated and till cool in an atmosphere that can neither oxidize not deoxidize copper. By so doing copper may be heated to the melting point and allowed to cool again without suffering as regards its pitch. There are comparatively few gases that can be used for this purpose, but, fortunately, one which is exceedingly cheap and universally prevalent fulfills all requirements, viz., steam. In order to apply the principles enunciated it is necessary only to anneal copper in the ordinary annealing pots such as are used for iron, care being taken to inclose the copper while heating and while cooling in an atmosphere of steam. This will effectually exclude air and prevent the ingress of gases used in heating the annealer. Twenty-four hours may be used in the process, as in the annealing of iron wire, with no detriment to the wire. This may seem incredible to those manufacturers who have tried to anneal copper wire after the manner of annealing iron wire. By this method perfectly bright annealed wire may be produced. Such a process of annealing copper offers many advantages. It allows the use of a grade of copper that has hitherto been worked only at a great disadvantage, owing to its tendency to get out of pitch. It allows the use of annealers such as are ordinarily employed for annealing iron, and thus cheapens the annealing considerably as compared with the present use of muffles. There is no chance of producing the overpoled condition from the action of reducing gases used in heating the muffles. There is no chance of producing the underpoled condition due to the absorption of suboxide of copper. None of the metal is lost as scale, and the saving that is thus effected amounts to a considerable percentage of the total value of the copper. The expense and time of cleaning are wholly saved. Incidentally bright annealed _ copper is produced by a process which is applicable to copper of any shape, size, or condition—a product that has hitherto been obtained only by processes (mostly secret) which are too cumbersome and too expensive for extensive use; and, as is the case with at least one process, with the danger of producing the overpoled condition, often in only a small section of the wire, but thus ruining the whole piece.