This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
An excellent cement for joining broken crockery and similar small articles can be made by melting 4 or 5 parts of rosin (or, better still, gum mastic) with 1 part of beeswax in an iron spoon or similar vessel. Apply while hot. It will not stand great heat.
An excellent cement for porcelain and stoneware is obtained by mixing 20 parts of fish glue with an equal weight of crystallizable acetic acid and evaporate the mixture carefully to a syrupy consistency so that it forms a gelatinous mass on cooling. For use the cement thus obtained is made liquid again by heating and applied to the fracture with a brush. The pieces should now be pressed firmly together, by winding a twine tightly around them, until the cement has hardened.
For luting vessels made of glass, porcelain, etc., which are to be used to old strong acids, a mixture of asbestos powder, water glass, and an indifferent powder (permanent white, sand, etc.) is recommended. To begin with, asbestos powder is made into a pulp with three or four times the quantity (weight) of a solution of soda water glass (of 30° B.). The same is exceedingly fat and plastic, but is not very well suited for working, as it shrinks too much and cracks when drying. By an addition of fine writing sand of the same weight as the asbestos used, the mass can be made less fat, so as to obviate shrinking, without detracting from the plasticity. Small vessels were molded from it and dried in the air, to be tested afterwards. Put in water, the hardened mass becomes soft again and falls apart. Brought into contact, however, with very strong mineral acids, it becomes even firmer and withstands the liquid perfectly. Concentrated nitric acid was kept in such small vessels without the mass being visibly attacked or anything penetrating it. The action of the acid manifestly has the effect that silicic acid is set free from the water glass in excess, which clogs up the pores entirely and contributes to the lutation. Later on, the mass cannot be dissolved by pure water any more. The mass is also highly fireproof. One of the molded bodies can be kept glowing in a Bunsen gas flame for about half a day after treatment with acid, without slagging in the least. For many purposes it ought to be welcome to have such a mass at hand. It cannot be kept ready for use, however, as it hardens a few hours after being prepared; if potash water glass is used, instead of the soda composition, this induration takes place still more quickly.
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