Lime is in the form of carbonate of calcium when used.

Magnesium Carbonate is used only in small quantities in enamel mixings. It necessitates a higher temperature for fusion, but does not affect the col6r to the slightest extent if pure.


As a decolorant, this mineral is very powerful, and therefore only small quantities must be used. Purity of the mineral is essential—i. e., it should contain from 95 to 98 per cent of binoxide of manganese.


At a certain temperature niter shows a chemical change, which, when affected by some of the other constituents, assists in the formation of the vitreous base.


Broken uncolored porcelain is sometimes used in enamel manufacture. Its composition: Quartz, china clay, and feldspar. It increases viscosity.

Red Lead

This decolorant is sometimes called purifier. It will, however, interfere with certain coloring media, and when this is the case its use should at once be discontinued.

Silicic Acid

Quartz, sand, rock crys-

tal, and flint stone are all forms of this acid in crystallized form. By itself it is practically infusible, but it can be incorporated with other materials to form mixings requiring varying temperatures for fusion.


The soda in general use is carbonate of soda—58 per cent—or enameling soda. The latter is specially prepared, so as to free it almost entirely from iron, and admit of the production of a pure white enamel when such is required.

Tin Oxide

All enamels must contain white ingredients to produce opacity, and the most generally used is oxide of tin. By itself it cannot be fused, but with proper manipulation it becomes diffused throughout the enamel mass. On the quantity added depends the denseness or degree of opacity imparted to the enamel.

It will be understood that the enamel constituents are divided into four distinct groups : I. Fundamental media. II. Flux media. III. Decolorant media. IV. Coloring media. We have briefly considered the three first named, and we will now proceed to No. IV. The coloring material used is in every case a metallic oxide, so that, so far as this goes, the coloring of an enamel frit is easy enough. Great care is, however, necessary, and at times many difficulties present themselves, which can only be overcome by experience. Coloring oxides are very frequently adulterated, and certain kinds of the adulterants are injurious to the frit and to the finish of the color.