Patent leather for boots and shoes is prepared from sealskins, enameled leather for harness from heavy bullock's hides. The process of tanning is what is called "union tannage" (a mixture of oak and hemlock barks). These tanned skins are subjected to the process of soaking, unhairing, liming, etc., and are then subjected to the tanning process. When about one-third tanned a buffing is taken off (if the hides are heavy), and the hide is split into three layers. The top or grain side is reserved for enameling in fancy colors for use on tops of carriages; the middle layer is finished for splatter boards and carriage trimmings, and some parts of harness; the underneath layer, or flesh side is used for shoe uppers and other purposes. The tanning of the splits is completed by subjecting them to a gambier liquor instead of a bark liquor.

When the splits are fully tanned they are laid on a table and scored, and then stretched in frames and dried, after which each one is covered on one side with the following compound, so as to close the pores of the leather that it may present a suitable surface for receiving the varnish: Into 14 parts of raw linseed oil put 1 part dry white lead and 1 part silver litharge, and boil, stirring constantly until the compound is thick enough to dry in 15 or 20 minutes (when spread on a sheet of iron or china) into a tough, elastic mass, like caoutchouc. This compound is laid on one side of the leather while it is still stretched in the frame. If for enameled leather (i. e., not the best patent), chalk or yellow ocher may be mixed in the above compound while boiling, or afterwards, but before spreading it on the leather.

The frames are then put into a rack in a drying closet, and the coated leather dried by steam heat at 80° to 160° P., the heat being raised gradually. After removal from the drying closet, the grounding coat previously laid on is pumiced, to smooth out the surface, and then given 2 or 3 coats of the enameling varnish, which consists of Prussian blue and lampblack boiled with linseed oil and diluted with turpentine, so as to enable it to flow evenly over the surface of the coated leather. When spread on with a brush, each coating of the enamel is dried before applying the next, and pumiced or rubbed with tripoli powder on a piece of flannel (the coat last laid on is not subjected to this rubbing), when the leather is ready for market.

To prepare the enameling composition, boil 1 part asphaltum with 20 parts raw linseed oil until thoroughly combined; then add 10 parts thick copal varnish, and when this mixture is homogeneous dilute with 20 parts spirit of turpentine.

Instead of the foregoing enameling varnish the following is used for superior articles:

Prussian blue...... 18 ounces

Vegetable black... 4 ounces

Raw linseed oil. . . . 160 fluidounces

Boil together as previously directed, and dilute with turpentine as occasion requires. These enameling varnishes should be made and kept several weeks in the same room as the varnishing is carried on, so that they are always subjected to the same temperature.