This section is from the "Henley's Twentieth Century Formulas Recipes Processes" encyclopedia, by Norman W. Henley and others.
(See also Lutes, under Adhesives and Cements.)
Common putty, as used by carpenters, painters, and glaziers, is whiting mixed with linseed oil to the consistency of dough. Plasterers use a fine lime mortar that is called putty. Jewelers use a tin oxide for polishing, called putty powder or putzy powder. (See Putz Powder, under Jewelers' Polishes under Polishes.)
Melt 1 part of gum elastic with 2 parts of linseed oil and mix with the necessary quantity of white bole by continued kneading to the desired consistency. Hydrochloric acid and nitric acid do not attack this putty, it softens somewhat in the warm and does not dry readily on the surface. The drying and hardening is effected by an admixture of J part of litharge or red lead.
A putty which will even resist boiling sulphuric acid is prepared by melting caoutchouc at a moderate heat, then adding 8 per cent of tallow, stirring constantly, whereupon sufficiently slaked lime is added until the whole has the consistency of soft dough. Finally about 20 per cent of red lead is still added, which causes the mass to set immediately and to harden and dry. A solution of caoutchouc in double its weight of linseed oil, added by means of heat and with the like quantity (weight) of pipe clay, gives a plastic mass which likewise resists most acids.
Mix whiting and antimony sulphide, the latter finely powdered, with soluble glass. This putty, it is claimed, can be polished, after Hardening, by means of a burnishing agate.
According to the "Gewerbeschau," mix a handful of burnt lime with 4.25 ounces of linseed oil; allow this mixture to boil down to the consistency of common putty, and dry the extensible mass received, in a place not accessible to the rays of the sun. When the putty, which has become very hard through the drying, is to be used, it is warmed. Over the flame it will become soft and pliable, but after having been applied and become cold, it binds the various materials very firmly.
I. — For puttying panes or looking glasses into picture frames a mixture prepared as follows is well adapted: Make a solution of gum elastic in benzine, strong enough so that a syrup-like fluid results. If the solution be too thin, wait until the benzine evaporates. Then grind white lead in linseed-oil varnish to a stiff paste and add the gum solution. This putty may be used, besides the above purposes, for the tight puttying-in of window panes into their frames. The putty is applied on the glass lap of the frames and the panes are firmly pressed into it. The glass plates thereby obtain a good, firm support and stick to the wood, as the putty adheres both to the glass and to the wood.
A useful putty for mirrors, etc., is prepared by dissolving gummi elasticum (caoutchouc) in benzol to a syrupy solution, and incorporating this latter with a mixture of white lead and linseed oil to make a stiff pulp. The putty adheres strongly to both glass and wood, and may therefore be applied to the framework of the window, mirror, etc., to be glazed, the glass being then pressed firmly on the cementing layer thus formed.
This is used by carriage painters and jewelers. Boil 4 pounds brown umber and 7 pounds linseed oil for 2 hours; stir in 2 ounces beeswax; take from the fire and mix in 5.5 pounds chalk and 11 pounds white lead; the mixing must be done very thoroughly.
Gradually knead sifted dry chalk (whiting) or else rye flour, powdered white lead, zinc white, or lithopone white with good linseed-oil varnish. The best putty is produced from varnish with plenty of chalk and some zinc white. This mixture can be tinted with earth colors. These oil putties must be well kneaded together and rather compact (like glaziers' putty).
If flour paste is boiled (this is best produced by scalding with hot water, pouring in, gradually, the rye flour which has been previously dissolved in a little cold water and stirring constantly until the proper consistency is attained) and dry sifted chalk and a little varnish are added, a good rough stuff for wood or iron is obtained, which can be rubbed. This may also be produced from glaziers' oil putty by gradually kneading into it flour paste and a little more sifted dry chalk.